|10800 BC||Younger Dryas|
|The Younger Dryas is a geological period from c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 calendar years ago (BP). It is named after an indicator genus, the alpine-tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala. Leaves of Dryas octopetala are occasionally abundant in the Late Glacial, often minerogenic-rich, like the lake sediments of Scandinavian lakes. The Younger Dryas saw a sharp decline in temperature over most of the northern hemisphere, at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, immediately preceding the current warmer Holocene.
* Date : 10800 BC
|9600 BC||Göbekli Tepe|
|Göbekli Tepe 'Potbelly Hill' in Turkish, is an archaeological site atop a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of modern-day Turkey, approximately 12 km (7 mi) northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa. The tell has a height of 15 m (49 ft) and is about 300 m (984 ft) in diameter. It is approximately 760 m (2,493 ft) above sea level. The tell includes two phases of ritual use dating back to the 10th–8th millennium BCE. During the first phase, pre-pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), circles of massive T-shaped stone pillars were erected, the world's oldest known megaliths.
* Date : 9600 BC ~ 8200 BC
|Jericho is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank. It is believed to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world and the city with the oldest known protective wall in the world.
* Date : 8000 BC
|Çatalhöyük (Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtaɫhøjyk]; also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal 'fork' + höyük 'mound') was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC. In July 2012, it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
* Date : 7000 BC
|6500 BC||Ubaid period|
|The Ubaid period (ca. 6500 to 3800 BCE) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. The name derives from Tell al-`Ubaid where the earliest large excavation of Ubaid period material was conducted initially by Henry Hall and later by Leonard Woolley.
* Date : 6500 BC ~ 3800 BC
|6200 BC||8.2 kiloyear event|
|The 8.2 kiloyear event is the term that climatologists have adopted for a sudden decrease in global temperatures that occurred approximately 8,200 years before the present, or c. 6,200 BCE, and which lasted for the next two to four centuries. Milder than the Younger Dryas cold spell that preceded it, but more severe than the Little Ice Age that would follow, the 8.2 kiloyear cooling was a significant exception to general trends of the Holocene climatic optimum. During the event, atmospheric methane concentration decreased by 80 ppb or an emission reduction of 15%, by cooling and drying at a hemispheric scale.
* Date : 6200 BC
|6200 BC||Xinglongwa culture|
|The Xinglongwa culture (興隆洼文化) (6200-5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, found mainly around the Inner Mongolia-Liaoning border. Xinglongwa pottery was primarily cylindrical, and baked at low temperatures.
* Date : 6200 BC ~ 5400 BC
|5677 BC||Mount Mazama volcanic eruption|
|Mount Mazama is a stratovolcano in the Oregon segment of the Cascade Volcanic Arc and the Cascade Range located in the United States. The volcano's collapsed caldera holds Crater Lake, and the entire mountain is located within Crater Lake National Park. Its caldera was created by an eruption 42 times greater than the one of Mount St. Helens in 1980. Mazama's summit was destroyed by a volcanic eruption that occurred around 5677 BC, ± 150 years.
* Date : 5677 BC
|5000 BC||Yangshao culture|
|The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China. It is dated from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC.
* Date : 5000 BC ~ 3000 BC
|4700 BC||Hongshan culture|
|The Hongshan culture (simplified Chinese: 红山文化; traditional Chinese: 紅山文化; pinyin: Hóngshān wénhuà) was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China. Hongshan sites have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning, and dated from about 4700 to 2900 BC.
* Date : 4700 BC ~ 2900 BC
|4000 BC||Uruk period|
|The Uruk period (ca. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period. Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk, this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization.
* Date : 4000 BC ~ 3100 BC
|3500 BC||Yamna culture|
|The Yamna or Yamnaya culture, also called Pit Grave Culture and Ochre Grave Culture, was a late Copper Age/early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to 3,500 ~ 2,300 BCE. The Yamna culture is identified with the late Proto Indo Europeans, and is the strongest candidate for the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto Indo European language.
* Date : 3500 BC ~ 2300 BC
|3114/08/13 BC||Maya calendar|
|According to the correlation between the Long Count and Western calendars accepted by the great majority of Maya researchers (known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson, or GMT, correlation), this starting-point is equivalent to August 11, 3114 BCE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar or 6 September in the Julian calendar (−3113 astronomical).
* Date : 3114/08/13 BC
|3102/02/17 BC||Kali Yuga|
|According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE.
* Date : 3102/02/17 BC
|3100 BC||Jemdet Nasr period|
|The Jemdet Nasr Period is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq). It is generally dated from 3100–2900 BC. It is named after the type site Tell Jemdet Nasr, where the assemblage typical for this period was first recognized. Its geographical distribution is limited to south-central Iraq. The culture of the proto-historical Jemdet Nasr period is a local development out of the preceding Uruk period and continues into the Early Dynastic I period.
* Date : 3100 BC ~ 2900 BC
|Menes (/ˈmiːniːz/; Egyptian: mnj, probably pronounced */maˈnij/; Ancient Greek: Μήνης; Arabic: مينا) was a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt and as the founder of the First Dynasty.
* Date : 3100 BC
|3100 BC||Early Dynastic Period (Egypt)|
|The Archaic or Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately follows the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt c. 3100 BC. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Naqada III archaeological period until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom.
* Date : 3100 BC ~ 2686 BC
|3100 BC||Indus Valley Civilisation|
|The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
* Date : 3100 BC
|3000 BC||Longshan culture|
|The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC.
* Date : 3000 BC ~ 2000 BC
|3000 BC||Minoan civilization|
|The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands and flourished from approximately 3650 to 1400 BC. It belongs to a period of Greek history preceding both the Mycenaean civilization and Ancient Greece.
* Date : 3000 BC ~ 2160 BC
|2900 BC||Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)|
|The Early Dynastic period (abbreviated ED period or ED) is an archaeological culture in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) that is generally dated to approximately 2900–2350 BC. It was preceded by the Uruk period and Jemdet Nasr period, which saw the formation of the first states, the first cities and the invention of writing.
* Date : 2900 BC ~ 2334 BC
|2686 BC||Old Kingdom of Egypt|
|The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called 'Kingdom' periods (followed by the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom) which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley.
* Date : 2686 BC ~ 2181 BC
|Mohenjo-daro (Sindhi: موئن جو دڙو, Urdu: موئن جو دڑو, IPA: [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ], lit. Mound of the Dead Men; English pronunciation: /moʊˌhɛn.dʒoʊ ˈdɑː.roʊ/) is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoan Crete, and Norte Chico.
* Date : 2600 BC
|Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]; Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہا) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The current village of Harappa is 6 km (3.7 mi) from the ancient site.
* Date : 2600 BC
|2560 BC||Great Pyramid of Giza|
|The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu, Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC.
* Date : 2560 BC
|Gilgamesh (/ɡɪlˈɡɑːmɛʃ/; 𒄑𒂆𒈦, Gilgameš, originally Bilgamesh 𒄑𒉈𒂵𒈩) is the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, an Akkadian poem that is considered the first great work of literature, and in earlier Sumerian poems.
* Date : 2500 BC
|Gojoseon (Korean pronunciation: [kodʑosʰʌn]) was an ancient Korean kingdom. The addition of Go (고, 古), meaning 'ancient', distinguishes it from the other kingdoms called Joseon.
* Date : 2333 BC
|2334 BC||Akkadian Empire|
|The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia and Accad in the Bible (Genesis 10:10). The empire united all the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. The Akkadian Empire controlled Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, Kuwait, northeast Syria and southeast Turkey), the Levant (modern Syria and Lebanon), and eastern and southern parts of Anatolia (modern Turkey) and Iran, sending military expeditions as far south as Dilmun and Meluhha (modern Bahrain and Oman) in the Arabian Peninsula.
* Date : 2334 BC ~ 2193 BC
|2334 BC||Sargon of Akkad|
|Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn; sometimes known as 'Sargon the Great') was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
* Date : 2334 BC ~ 2279 BC
|2200 BC||4.2 kiloyear event|
|The 4.2 kiloyear BP aridification event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period in terms of impact on cultural upheaval. Starting in about 2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire 22nd century BC. It is very likely to have caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia. The drought may have also initiated southeastward habitat tracking within the Indus Valley Civilization.
* Date : 2200 BC
|2181 BC||First Intermediate Period of Egypt|
|The First Intermediate Period, often described as a 'dark period' in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred twenty-five years, from ca. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It included the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties.
* Date : 2181 BC ~ 2055 BC
|2160 BC||Minoan civilization|
|The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands and flourished from approximately 3650 to 1400 BC. It belongs to a period of Greek history preceding both the Mycenaean civilization and Ancient Greece.
* Date : 2160 BC ~ 1650 BC
|2112 BC||Third Dynasty of Ur|
|The Third Dynasty of Ur, also known as the Neo-Sumerian Empire, refers to both a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology timeline) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state which some historians consider to have been a nascent empire. The Third Dynasty of Ur is commonly abbreviated as Ur III by historians studying the period.
* Date : 2112 BC ~ 2004 BC
|2070 BC||Xia dynasty|
|The Xia dynasty (c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC) is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese history. It is described in ancient historical chronicles such as the Bamboo Annals, the Classic of History and the Records of the Grand Historian. According to tradition, the dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors, gave his throne to him. The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC).
* Date : 2070 BC ~ 1600 BC
|2040 BC||Middle Kingdom of Egypt|
|The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1800 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish c. 1650, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay c. 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion.
* Date : 2040 BC ~ 1782 BC
|2004 BC||the fall of the Ur III Dynasty|
|With the fall of the Ur III Dynasty after an Elamite invasion in 2004/1940 BC (middle/short chronology respectively), Babylonia fell under foreign (Amorite) influence.
* Date : 2004 BC
|Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at this time the minor city of Babylon. Babylon greatly expanded during the reign of Hammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capital city. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called Māt Akkadī 'the country of Akkad' in the Akkadian language.
* Date : 1894 BC ~ 1595 BC
|Hammurabi (c. 1810 BC - 1750 BC) was the sixth king of the First Babylonian Dynasty, reigning from 1792 BC to 1750 BC (according to the Middle Chronology). He was preceded by his father, Sin-Muballit, who abdicated due to failing health. He extended Babylon's control throughout Mesopotamia through military campaigns.
* Date : 1792 BC ~ 1750 BC
|1782 BC||Second Intermediate Period of Egypt|
|The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as the period when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt and whose reign comprised the Fifteenth dynasty.
* Date : 1782 BC ~ 1570 BC
|The Hyksos (/ˈhɪksɒs/ or /ˈhɪksoʊz/; Egyptian heqa khaseshet, 'ruler(s) of the foreign countries'; Ancient Greek: Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta, some time before 1650 BC. The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. In the context of Ancient Egypt, the term 'Asiatic' – which is often used of the Hyksos – may refer to any people native to areas east of Egypt.
* Date : 1720 BC ~ 1575 BC
|1650 BC||Minoan civilization|
|The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands and flourished from approximately 3650 to 1400 BC. It belongs to a period of Greek history preceding both the Mycenaean civilization and Ancient Greece. It was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. Historian Will Durant dubbed the Minoans 'the first link in the European chain,' and their civilization has been referred to as the earliest of its kind in Europe.
* Date : 1650 BC ~ 1450 BC
|1626 BC||Minoan eruption|
|The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of 60 km3 (14 cu mi), Dated to the mid-second millennium BCE, the eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded history.
* Date : 1626 BC
|1600 BC||Mycenaean Greece|
|Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600–1100 BC). It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system.
* Date : 1600 BC ~ 1100 BC
|The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.
* Date : 1600 BC ~ 1178 BC
|동북방의 산악지대로부터 메소포타미아로 침입한 인도 ∙ 유럽계 민족. 바빌론 제1왕조의 멸망 후 B.C. 1550년 무렵부터 약 400년간 메소포타미아를 지배함(바빌론 제3왕조).
* Date : 1600 BC ~ 1155 BC
|1600 BC||Shang dynasty|
|The Shang dynasty (Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the 'current text' of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 to 1046 BC.
* Date : 1600 BC ~ 1046 BC
|1550 BC||The Exodus(?)|
|The Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος exodos, 'going out') is the founding, or etiological, myth of Israel; its message is that the Israelites were delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant.
* Date : 1550 BC
|1550 BC||New Kingdom of Egypt|
|The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570–1544 BC.
* Date : 1550 BC ~ 1077 BC
|1504 BC||Thutmose III|
|Thutmose III (sometimes read as Thutmosis or Tuthmosis III, Thothmes in older history works, and meaning 'Thoth is born') was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
* Date : 1504 BC ~ 1450 BC
|1500 BC||Indo-Aryan migration|
|The Indo-Aryan migrations started in approximately 1800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, and also brought Indo-Aryan languages into the Levant and possibly Inner Asia.
* Date : 1500 BC
|1290 BC||Ramesses II|
|Ramesses II (variously transliterated as 'Rameses' (/ˈræməsiːz/) or 'Ramses' (/ˈræmsiːz/ or /ˈræmziːz/); born c. 1303 BC; died July or August 1213 BC; reigned 1279–1213 BC), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire. His successors and later Egyptians called him the 'Great Ancestor'. Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein.
* Date : 1290 BC ~ 1224 BC
|1286 BC||Battle of Kadesh|
|The Battle of Kadesh (also Qadesh) took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, just upstream of Lake Homs near the modern Syrian-Lebanese border.
* Date : 1286 BC
|1250 BC||Trojan War|
|In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably through Homer's Iliad.
* Date : 1250 BC
|1206 BC||Late Bronze Age collapse|
|The Late Bronze Age collapse was a Dark Age transition period in the Aegean Region, Southwestern Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age that historians believe was violent, sudden and culturally disruptive. The palace economy of the Aegean Region and Anatolia that characterised the Late Bronze Age was replaced, after a hiatus, by the isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages.
* Date : 1206 BC ~ 1150 BC
|1175 BC||Battle of the Delta|
|The Battle of the Delta was a sea battle between Egypt and the Sea Peoples, circa 1175 BCE when the Egyptian pharaoh Ramesses III repulsed a major sea invasion. The conflict occurred somewhere at the shores of the eastern Nile Delta and partly on the borders of the Egyptian Empire in Syria, although their precise locations are unknown.
* Date : 1175 BC
|The Olmecs were the first major civilization in Guatemala and Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco and modern southwestern pacific lowlands of Guatemala.
* Date : 1150 BC
|1100 BC||Greek Dark Ages|
|The Greek Dark Age, also called Greek Dark Ages, Homeric Age (named for the fabled poet, Homer) or Geometric period (so called after the characteristic Geometric art of the time), is the period of Greek history from the end of the Mycenaean palatial civilization around 1100 BC to the first signs of the Greek poleis, city states, in the 9th century BC.
* Date : 1100 BC ~ 800 BC
|1069 BC||Third Intermediate Period of Egypt|
|The Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt begins with the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC, ending the New Kingdom, and ends with the start of the Late Period, for which various points are offered, though it is most often regarded as dating from the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I in 664 BC, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty by the Assyrians under King Assurbanipal.
* Date : 1069 BC ~ 665 BC
|1046 BC||Zhou dynasty|
|The Zhou dynasty (Chinese: 周朝; pinyin: Zhōu cháo [ʈʂóu̯ ʈʂʰǎu̯]) was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. Although the Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the dynasty, surnamed Ji (Chinese: 姬), lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou.
* Date : 1046 BC ~ 256 BC
|911 BC||Neo-Assyrian Empire|
|The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 612 BC. The Assyrians perfected early techniques of imperial rule, many of which became standard in later empires.
* Date : 911 BC ~ 612 BC
|Carthage (/ˈkɑːrθɪdʒ/, from Latin: Carthāgō; Phoenician Qart-ḥadašt 'New City') was the centre or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean Sea during the first millennium BC.
* Date : 814 BC
|Polis (/ˈpɒlᵻs/; Greek: πόλις pronounced [pólis]), plural poleis (/ˈpɒleɪz/, πόλεις [póleːs]) literally means city in Greek. It can also mean citizenship and body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as 'city-state'.
* Date : 800 BC
|776 BC||The first Olympics|
|The first Olympics is traditionally dated to 776 BC. They continued to be celebrated when Greece came under Roman rule, until the emperor Theodosius I suppressed them in AD 393 as part of the campaign to impose Christianity as the State religion of Rome. The games were held every four years, or olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies.
* Date : 776 BC
|771 BC||Eastern Zhou|
| The capital was moved eastward to Chengzhou, marking the end of the 'Western Zhou' (西周, p Xī Zhōu) and the beginning of the 'Eastern Zhou' dynasty (東周, p Dōng Zhōu).
* Date : 771 BC
|770 BC||Spring and Autumn period|
|The Spring and Autumn period (simplified Chinese: 春秋时代; traditional Chinese: 春秋時代; pinyin: Chūnqiū Shídài) was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC[a]) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius.
* Date : 770 BC ~ 403 BC
|753 BC||Founding of Rome|
|The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
* Date : 753 BC
|The Scythians (/ˈsɪθi.ən/ or /ˈsɪði.ən/; from Greek Σκύθης, Σκύθοι), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were a large group of Iranian Eurasian nomads who were mentioned by the literate peoples surrounding them as inhabiting large areas in the central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
* Date : 700 BC
|Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Greek: Λυδία, Turkish: Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian.
* Date : 685 BC ~ 547 BC
|The Medes (/miːdz/, Old Persian Māda-, Ancient Greek: Μῆδοι, Hebrew: מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. They mainly inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Kermanshah-Hamadan (Ecbatana) region Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 1000 BC to around 900 BC.
* Date : 678 BC ~ 549 BC
|664 BC||Saite Dynasty|
|The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (also written Dynasty XXVI or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty to rule Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although others followed). The dynasty's reign (664–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.
* Date : 664 BC ~ 525 BC
|626 BC||Neo-Babylonian Empire|
|The Neo-Babylonian Empire, also known as the Chaldean Empire, was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC. During the preceding three centuries, Babylonia had been ruled by their fellow Akkadian speakers and northern neighbours, Assyria.
* Date : 626 BC ~ 539 BC
|612 BC||Fall of Assyria|
|Upon the death of Ashurbanipal in 627 BC, the empire began to disintegrate due to a brutal and unremitting series of civil wars in Assyria proper. In 616 BC, Cyaxares king of the Medes and Persians made alliances with Nabopolassar ruler of the Babylonians and Chaldeans, and also the Scythians and Cimmerians against Assyria. At the Fall of Harran (609 BC) the Babylonians and Medes defeated an Assyrian-Egyptian alliance, after which Assyria largely ceased to exist as an independent state, although the Assyrian army and remnants of its administration continued to hold out around Carchemish until 605 BC, and around Dur-Katlimmu until perhaps as late as 599 BC.
* Date : 612 BC
|600 BC||Axial Age|
|Axial Age (also Axis Age, from German: Achsenzeit) is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers after Victor von Strauß (1859) and Ernst von Lasaulx (1870) in the sense of a 'pivotal age' characterizing the period of ancient history during about the 8th to the 3rd century BC.
* Date : 600 BC ~ 401 BC
|587 BC||Babylonian captivity|
|The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of Judahites of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
* Date : 587 BC
|With possible roots dating back to the second millennium BCE, Zoroastrianism enters recorded history in the 5th-century BCE, and along with a Mithraic Median prototype and a Zurvanist Sassanid successor it served as the state religion of the pre-Islamic Iranian empires from around 600 BCE to 650 CE.
* Date : 583 BC
|550 BC||Achaemenid Empire|
|The Achaemenid Empire (/əˈkiːmənɪd/, from Old Persian Haxāmanišiya, c. 550–330 BC), also called the (First) Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, it became larger than any empire previously seen in history.
* Date : 550 BC ~ 330 BC
|544 BC||Buddha's death(?)|
|Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE.
* Date : 544 BC
|539 BC||Fall of Neo-Babylonian|
|The Neo-Babylonian period ended with the reign of Nabonidus in 539 BC. To the east, the Persians had been growing in strength, and eventually Cyrus the Great conquered the empire.
* Date : 539 BC
|525 BC||Battle of Pelusium|
|The Battle of Pelusium, an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said, was the first major battle between the Achaemenid Empire and ancient Egypt. This decisive battle transferred the throne of the Pharaohs to Cambyses II of Persia, king of the Persians. It was fought near Pelusium in 525 BCE. The battle was preceded and followed by sieges at Gaza and Memphis.
* Date : 525 BC
|509 BC||Roman Republic|
|The Roman Republic (Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.
* Date : 509 BC
|507 BC||Athenian democracy|
|Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'.
* Date : 507 BC
|499 BC||Greco-Persian Wars|
|The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
* Date : 499 BC ~ 450 BC
|Confucius (/kənˈfjuːʃəs/; September 28, 551 – 479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
* Date : 479 BC
|477 BC||Delian League|
|The Delian League, founded in 477 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150 173, to 330 under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
* Date : 477 BC
|Pericles (c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family.
* Date : 461 BC ~ 429 BC
|450 BC||Twelve Tables|
|According to Roman tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. The Tables consolidated earlier traditions into an enduring set of laws.
* Date : 450 BC
|The Histories of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. Written in 440 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Western Asia, Northern Africa and Greece at that time.
* Date : 440 BC
|431 BC||Peloponnesian War|
|The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
* Date : 431 BC ~ 404 BC
|430 BC||Plague of Athens|
|The Plague of Athens was an epidemic which devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BCE) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. It is believed to have entered Athens through Piraeus, the city's port and sole source of food and supplies. Much of the eastern Mediterranean also saw outbreak of the disease, albeit with less impact. The plague returned twice more, in 429 BC and in the winter of 427/426 BC. Some 30 pathogens have been suggested as causing the plague.
* Date : 430 BC ~ 426 BC
|404 BC||Province of Achaemenid Empire|
|The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II of Persia in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in May 525 BCE. Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. Thus began the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (also known as the 27th Dynasty), which ended around 402 BC.
* Date : 404 BC
|403 BC||Warring States period|
|The Warring States period (Chinese: 戰國時代; pinyin: Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
* Date : 403 BC ~ 221 BC
|Socrates (/ˈsɒkrətiːz/; Greek: Σωκράτης [sɔːkrátɛːs], Sōkrátēs; 470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy.
* Date : 399 BC
|359 BC||The Book of Lord Shang|
|The Book of Lord Shang (Chinese: 商君書; pinyin: Shāng jūn shū) is an ancient Chinese text from the 3rd century BC, regarded as a foundational work of 'Chinese Legalism'.
* Date : 359 BC
|338 BC||Battle of Chaeronea|
|The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states including Athens and Thebes. The battle was the culmination of Philip's campaign in Greece (339–338 BC) and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians.
* Date : 338 BC
|336 BC||Alexander the Great|
|Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas Koine Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas] ), was a king (basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead dynasty.
* Date : 336 BC ~ 323 BC
|332 BC||Alexander, Conquest of Egypt|
|Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator. He was pronounced son of the deity Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert.
* Date : 332 BC
|330 BC||Alexander, Conquest of Persia|
|From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury. He sent the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Persian Royal Road.
* Date : 330 BC
|322 BC||Maurya Empire|
|The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between c. 322 and 185 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna).
* Date : 322 BC ~ 185 BC
|312 BC||Seleucid Empire|
|The Seleucid Empire (/sɪˈljuːsɪd/; Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; it was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
* Date : 312 BC
|306 BC||Antigonid dynasty|
|The Antigonid dynasty (/ænˈtɪɡoʊnɪd/; Greek: Ἀντιγονίδαι) was a dynasty of Hellenistic kings descended from Alexander the Great's general Antigonus I Monophthalmus ('the One-eyed').
* Date : 306 BC
|305 BC||Ptolemaic dynasty|
|The Ptolemaic dynasty /ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ᵻk/ (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids /ˈlædʒᵻdz/ or Lagidae /ˈlædʒᵻˌdiː/ (Ancient Greek: Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Greek royal family, originating from Macedon, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
* Date : 305 BC
|300 BC||Establishment of Jin|
|The state of Jin was a confederacy of statelets which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north.
* Date : 300 BC
|272 BC||Roman conquest of Italy|
|The Roman conquest of Italy was the result of a series of conflicts in which the city-state of Rome grew from being the dominant state in Latium to become the ruler of all of Italy.
* Date : 272 BC
|Ashoka (IAST: Aśoka; English pronunciation: /əˈʃoʊkə/; died 232 BCE) was an ancient Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.
* Date : 265 BC
|264 BC||First Punic War|
|The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic.
* Date : 264 BC ~ 241 BC
|Parthia (Old Persian: 𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺, Parθava, Parthian: 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅, Parθaw, Middle Persian: 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥, Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran. It was the political and cultural base of the Arsacid dynasty, rulers of the Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD).
* Date : 247 BC
|221 BC||Qin dynasty|
|The Qin dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade–Giles: Ch'in2 Ch'ao2) was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
* Date : 221 BC ~ 206 BC
|218 BC||Second Punic War|
|The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) the War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.
* Date : 218 BC ~ 201 BC
|214 BC||Great Wall of China|
|The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Especially famous is the wall built 220–206 BC by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
* Date : 214 BC
|213 BC||Burning of books and burying of scholars|
|The burning of books and burying of scholars (simplified Chinese: 焚书坑儒; traditional Chinese: 焚書坑儒; pinyin: fénshū kēngrú) refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BC and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 210 BC by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China. The event caused the loss of many philosophical treatises of the Hundred Schools of Thought.
* Date : 213 BC
|209 BC||Modu Chanyu became the Xiongnu ruler|
|Modu Chanyu (simplified Chinese: 冒顿单于; traditional Chinese: 冒頓單于; pinyin: Màodùn Chányú, Mongolian: Модунь, Modun; Баатар, Baatar), sometimes also transcribed as Maodun) who was born in circa 234 BC and died in 174 BC, was the fourth known Xiongnu ruler and the founder of the Xiongnu Empire. He became the Xiongnu ruler after he ordered the execution of his father Touman in 209 BC.
* Date : 209 BC
|206 BC||Emperor Gaozu of Han|
|He won the race against fellow rebel leader Xiang Yu to invade the Qin heartland and forced the surrender of the last Qin emperor in 206 BC.
* Date : 206 BC
|202 BC||Han dynasty|
|The Han dynasty (Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàn cháo) was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history.
* Date : 202 BC
|194 BC||Wiman Joseon|
|Wiman Joseon (194–108 BC) was part of the Gojoseon period (2333 BC? - 108 BC) of Korean history. It began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gojoseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo who was a grandson of Wiman.
* Date : 194 BC
|168 BC||Fall of Macedonia|
| Macedonia's decline began with the rise of Rome until its ultimate subjection in 168 BC following the Macedonian Wars.
* Date : 168 BC
|149 BC||Third Punic War|
|The Third Punic War (Latin: Tertium Bellum Punicum) (149–146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage and the Roman Republic. The Punic Wars were named because of the Roman name for Carthaginians: Punici, or Poenici.
* Date : 149 BC ~ 146 BC
|141 BC||Emperor Wu of Han|
|Emperor Wu of Han (30 June 156 BC – 29 March 87 BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC. His reign lasted 54 years — a record not broken until the reign of the Kangxi Emperor more than 1,800 years later. His reign resulted in vast territorial expansion, development of a strong and centralized state resulting from his governmental re-organization, including his promotion of Confucian doctrines.
* Date : 141 BC ~ 87 BC
|139 BC||Zhang Qian|
|Zhang Qian (Chinese: 張騫; d. 113 BC) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han dynasty.
* Date : 139 BC
|133 BC||Han–Xiongnu War|
|The Han–Xiongnu War, also known as the Sino-Xiongnu War, was a series of military battles fought between the Chinese Han dynasty and the Xiongnu confederated state from 133 BC to 89 AD.
* Date : 133 BC
|108 BC||Gojoseon–Han War|
|The Gojoseon–Han War was a campaign launched by the Chinese Han Dynasty against Wiman Joseon between 109 and 108 BC. It resulted in the fall of Gojoseon.
* Date : 108 BC
|91 BC||Records of the Grand Historian|
|The Records of the Grand Historian (太史公書), now usually known as the Shǐjì (史記, 'The Scribe's Records'), is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court. The work covers the world as it was then known to the Chinese and a 2500-year period from the age of the legendary Yellow Emperor to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han in the author's own time.
* Date : 91 BC
|73 BC||Third Servile War|
|The Third Servile War (73–71 BC), also called the Gladiator War and the War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of a series of unrelated and unsuccessful slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Roman Servile Wars.
* Date : 73 BC ~ 71 BC
|66 BC||Pompey in the East|
|Pompey in the East: Third Mithridatic War, Syria and Judea
* Date : 66 BC ~ 63 BC
|58 BC||Gallic Wars|
|The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium).
* Date : 58 BC ~ 50 BC
|57 BC||Hyeokgeose of Silla|
|Hyeokgeose of Silla (69 BC - 4 AD, r. 57 BC–4 AD), also known by his personal full name as Bak (Park, Pak) Hyeokgeose, was the founding monarch of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the progenitor of all Bak (Park) clans in Korea.
* Date : 57 BC
|53 BC||Battle of Carrhae|
|The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae. The Parthian Spahbod ('General') Surena decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus.
* Date : 53 BC
|49 BC||Crossing the Rubicon|
|The idiom 'Crossing the Rubicon' means to pass a point of no return, and refers to Julius Caesar's army's crossing of the Rubicon River (in the north of Italy) in 49 BC, which was considered an act of insurrection and treason. Julius Caesar uttered the famous phrase 'alea iacta est'—the die is cast—as his army marched through the shallow river.
* Date : 49 BC
|44 BC||Assassination of Julius Caesar|
|The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators. Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, they stabbed Julius Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March (March 15), 44 BC.
* Date : 44 BC
|37 BC||Dongmyeong of Goguryeo|
|King Dongmyeong of Goguryeo (58 BCE – 19 BCE, r. 37 BCE – 19 BCE) or Dongmyeongseongwang (Hangul: 동명성왕; Hanja: 東明聖王), which literally means Holy King of the East, also known by his birth name Jumong (Hangul: 주몽; Hanja: 朱蒙), was the founding monarch of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.
* Date : 37 BC
|31 BC||Battle of Actium|
|The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the power of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt.
* Date : 31 BC
|30 BC||Egypt's surrender|
|Octavian's victory at Actium gave him sole and uncontested control of 'Mare Nostrum' (Our Sea, i.e., the Roman Mediterranean) and he became 'Augustus Caesar' and the 'first citizen' of Rome. This victory, consolidating his power over every Roman institution, marked the transition of Rome from Republic to Empire. Egypt's surrender following Cleopatra's death marked the final demise of both the Hellenistic Period and the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
* Date : 30 BC
|27 BC||Roman Empire|
|Octavian's power was then unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus, effectively marking the end of the Roman Republic.
* Date : 27 BC
|18 BC||Onjo of Baekje|
|Onjo (?-28, r. 18 BC–AD 28) was the founding monarch of Baekje (백제,百濟), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the Samguk Sagi (삼국사기,三國史記), he was the ancestor of all Baekje kings.
* Date : 18 BC
|1||Roman Warm Period|
|The Roman Warm Period, or Roman Climatic Optimum, is a proposed period of unusually warm weather in Europe and the North Atlantic that ran from approximately 250 BC to AD 400.
* Date : 1
|3||Goguryeo, Guonei City|
|Guonei was chosen to become the capital city by the kingdom's second ruler, King Yuri during the 10th month of the year 3 AD.
* Date : 3
|The Xin dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; pinyin: Xīn Cháo; Wade–Giles: Hsin Ch'ao) was a Chinese dynasty (termed so despite having only one emperor) which lasted from 9 to 23 AD. It interrupted the Han dynasty, dividing it into the periods of the Western Han and the Eastern Han.
* Date : 8 ~ 23
|9||Publius Quinctilius Varus|
|Publius Quinctilius Varus (46 BC Cremona, Roman Republic – Sept. 9 AD near Kalkriese, Germany) was a Roman general and politician under the first Roman emperor Augustus. Varus is generally remembered for having lost three Roman legions when ambushed by Germanic tribes led by Arminius in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, whereupon he took his own life.
* Date : 9
|The Eastern Han, also known as the Later Han, formally began on 5 August 25, when Liu Xiu became Emperor Guangwu of Han. During the widespread rebellion against Wang Mang, the state of Goguryeo was free to raid Han's Korean commanderies; Han did not reaffirm its control over the region until AD 30.
* Date : 25
|The Kushan Empire (Bactrian: Κυϸανο, Kushano; Sanskrit: कुषाण राजवंश Kuṣāṇ Rājavaṃśa; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Parthian: 𐭊𐭅𐭔𐭍 𐭇𐭔𐭕𐭓 Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. It spread to encompass much of Afghanistan, and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), where inscriptions have been found dating to the era of the Kushan emperor Kanishka the Great. Emperor Kanishka was a great patron of Buddhism; however, as Kushans expanded southward, the deities of their later coinage came to reflect its new Hindu majority.
* Date : 30
|33||Historicity of Jesus|
* Date : 33
|42||Suro of Geumgwan Gaya|
|Suro (수로), or Sureung (posthumous name: 수릉, 首陵, ? - 199), commonly called Gim Suro, was the legendary founder and king of the state of Geumgwan Gaya in southeastern Korea.
* Date : 42
|As a Han general and cavalry commander, Ban Chao was in charge of administrating the 'Western Regions' (Central Asia) while he was in service. He also led Han forces for over 30 years in the war against the Xiongnu and secured Han control over the Tarim Basin region.
* Date : 73 ~ 102
|79||Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79|
|The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD was one of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in European history.
* Date : 79
|96||Five Good Emperors|
|The rulers commonly known as the 'Five Good Emperors' were Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.
* Date : 96 ~ 180
|Cai Lun ([tsʰâi̯ lu̯ə̌n]; Chinese: 蔡倫; AD 48– 121), courtesy name Jingzhong (敬仲), was a Han dynasty Chinese eunuch and official. He is traditionally regarded as the inventor of paper and the papermaking process, in forms recognizable in modern times as paper (as opposed to papyrus). Although early forms of paper had existed in China since the 2nd century BC, he was responsible for the first significant improvement and standardization of paper-making by adding essential new materials into its composition.
* Date : 105
|Around A.D. 155, the northern Xiongnu were 'crushed and subjugated' by the Xianbei. Their chief, known by the Chinese as Tan-shih-huai, then advanced upon and defeated the Wusun of the Ili by A.D. 166.
* Date : 155
|The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.
* Date : 165 ~ 180
|161||Roman–Parthian War of 161–166|
|The Roman–Parthian War of 161–166 (also called the Parthian War of Lucius Verus) was fought between the Roman and Parthian Empires over Armenia and Upper Mesopotamia. It concluded in 166 after the Romans made successful campaigns into lower Mesopotamia and Media and sacked Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital.
* Date : 161 ~ 166
|The Antonine Plague of 165 to 180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. Scholars have suspected it to have been either smallpox or measles, but the true cause remains undetermined.
* Date : 165 ~ 180
|The Marcomannic Wars (Latin: bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum, 'German and Sarmatian War') were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about 166 until 180 AD. These wars pitted the Roman Empire against, principally, the Germanic Marcomanni and Quadi and the Sarmatian Iazyges; there were related conflicts with several other barbarian peoples along both sides of the whole length of the Roman Empire's northeastern European border, the river Danube.
* Date : 168 ~ 174
|184||Yellow Turban Rebellion|
|The Yellow Turban Rebellion, also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, was a peasant revolt in China against the Han dynasty. The uprising broke out in the year 184 during the reign of Emperor Ling. It took 21 years until the uprising was suppressed in the year 205.
* Date : 184
|The Hatepe eruption, named for the Hatepe Plinian pumice tephra layer, sometimes referred to as the Taupo eruption and dated to around 180 AD, was Lake Taupo's most recent major eruption. It is considered New Zealand's largest eruption during the last 20,000 years. The eruption ejected some 120 km3 (29 cu mi), a VEI 7 eruption, of which 30 km3 (7.2 cu mi) was ejected in the space of a few minutes.
* Date : 186
|200||Battle of Guandu|
|The Battle of Guandu was fought between the warlords Cao Cao and Yuan Shao in 200 AD in the late Eastern Han dynasty. The battle, which concluded with a decisive victory for Cao Cao, was a turning point in the war between the two warlords.
* Date : 200
|208||Battle of Red Cliffs|
|The Battle of Red Cliffs, otherwise known as the Battle of Chibi, was a decisive battle fought at the end of the Han dynasty, about twelve years prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history. It was fought in the winter of AD 208/9 between the allied forces of the southern warlords Liu Bei and Sun Quan and the numerically superior forces of the northern warlord Cao Cao.
* Date : 208
|The Three Kingdoms (AD 220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳), following the Han dynasty and preceding the Jin dynasty.
* Date : 220 ~ 280
|The Sasanian Empire (/səˈsɑːnɪən/ or /səˈseɪnɪən/), (Persian: ساسانیان) also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr (ایرانشهر) in Middle Persian language,[a] was the last imperial dynasty in Persia (Iran) before the rise of Islam, from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognized as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighboring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.
* Date : 224
|235||Crisis of the Third Century|
|The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
* Date : 235 ~ 284
|249||Plague of Cyprian|
|The Plague of Cyprian was a pandemic that afflicted the Roman Empire from about AD 249 to 262. The plague is thought to have caused widespread manpower shortages for food production and the Roman army, severely weakening the empire during the Crisis of the Third Century. Its modern name commemorates St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, an early Christian writer who witnessed and described the plague.
* Date : 249 ~ 262
|250||Maya civilization(Classic period)|
|The Classic period is largely defined as the period during which the lowland Maya raised dated monuments using the Long Count calendar.
* Date : 250
|261||Michu of Silla|
|Michu of Silla was the thirteenth ruler of the Korean state of Silla (262-284). He was the first king of the Kim clan to sit on the Silla throne; this clan would hold the throne for most of Silla's later history. He was the son of Gudo, a leading Silla general, and the sixth-generation descendant of the clan founder Kim Alji.
* Date : 261
|The Yamato period (大和時代 Yamato-jidai?) is the period of Japanese history when the Japanese Imperial court ruled from modern-day Nara Prefecture, then known as Yamato Province.
* Date : 270
|280||Jin dynasty (265–420), Chinese unity|
|The Jin dynasty, distinguished as the Sima Jin and Liang Jin, was a Chinese dynasty, empire, and era traditionally dated from AD 265 to 420. It was founded by Sima Yan, son of Sima Zhao who was created Prince of Jin and posthumously declared the founder of the dynasty. It followed the Three Kingdoms period (220-280 AD), which ended with the conquest of Eastern Wu by the Jin.
* Date : 280
|291||War of the Eight Princes|
|The War of the Eight Princes, Rebellion of the Eight Kings or Rebellion of the Eight Princes (simplified Chinese: 八王之乱; traditional Chinese: 八王之亂; pinyin: bā wáng zhī luàn; Wade–Giles: pa wang chih luan) was a series of civil wars among kings/princes (Chinese: wáng 王) of the Chinese Jin dynasty from AD 291 to 306.
* Date : 291 ~ 306
|The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a period in Chinese history from 304 to 439 in which the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by ethnic minority peoples who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin Dynasty in the early 4th century. The period ended with the unification of northern China by the Northern Wei in the early 5th century.
* Date : 304 ~ 439
|311||Disaster of Yongjia|
|The Disaster of Yongjia (Chinese: 永嘉之祸) referred to events that occurred in 311 CE, when Wu Hu forces captured and sacked Luoyang, the Jin capital.
* Date : 311
|313||Goguryeo conquered Lelang|
|After Luoyang, the capital of Jin, was occupied by the Xiongnu in 311, Zhang Tong (張統) went for help to Murong Hui, a Xianbei warlord, with his subjects in 314. Goguryeo under King Micheon annexed Lelang and Daifang soon after that.
* Date : 313
|313||Edict of Milan|
|The Edict of Milan (Italian: Editto di Milano, Latin: Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire. Western Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan and among other things, agreed to change policies towards Christians following the Edict of Toleration by Galerius issued two years earlier in Serdica.
* Date : 313
|The remaining followers of the Jin dynasty retreated south and formed the Eastern Jin, whose control was limited to South China. Throughout this period, the Jin court was severely weakened, allowing the Eastern Jin to be dominated by strong generals such as Wang Dun and Huan Wen.
* Date : 317 ~ 420
|The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, founded by Sri Gupta, which existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent.
* Date : 320
|The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
* Date : 330
|346||Geunchogo of Baekje|
|Geunchogo of Baekje (324-375, r. 346-375) was the 13th king of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He reigned over the apex of Baekje's powers.
* Date : 346 ~ 375
|The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century AD. As per European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of a Scythian people, the Alans. In 91 AD, the Huns were said to be living near the Caspian Sea and by about 150 had migrated southeast into the Caucasus. By 370, the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe.
* Date : 370
| Although immigration was common throughout the time of the Roman Empire, the period in question was, in the 19th century, often defined as running from about the 5th to 8th centuries AD.
* Date : 375 ~ 568
|380||State church of the Roman Empire|
|Nicene Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 CE, when Emperor Theodosius I made it the Empire's sole authorized religion.
* Date : 380
|The Northern Wei (Chinese: 北魏; pinyin: Běi Wèi; Wade–Giles: Pei3 Wei4), also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
* Date : 386
|391||Gwanggaeto the Great|
|Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo (374–413, r. 391–413) was the nineteenth monarch of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. His full posthumous name means 'Entombed in Gukgangsang, Broad Expander of Domain, Peacemaker, Supreme King', sometimes abbreviated to Hotaewang. His era name is Yeongnak and he is occasionally recorded as Yeongnak Taewang (Supreme King Yeongnak). Gwanggaeto's independent reign title meant that Goguryeo was on equal standing with the dynasties in the Chinese mainland.
* Date : 391 ~ 412
|395||Roman Empire, Final East West divide|
| Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death (in 395) between his two sons.
* Date : 395
|410||Sack of Rome (410)|
|The Sack of Rome occurred on August 24, 410. The city was attacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric. At that time, Rome was no longer the capital of the Western Roman Empire, having been replaced in that position first by Mediolanum in 286 and then by Ravenna in 402.
* Date : 410
|420||Northern and Southern dynasties|
|The Northern and Southern dynasties (Chinese: 南北朝; pinyin: Nán-Běi Cháo) was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states. It is sometimes considered as the latter part of a longer period known as the Six Dynasties (220 to 589).
* Date : 420 ~ 589
|427||Jangsu transferred the Goguryeo capital|
|In 427, he transferred the Goguryeo capital from Gungnae Fortress (present-day Ji'an on the China-North Korea border) to Pyongyang, a more suitable region to grow into a burgeoning metropolitan capital, which led Goguryeo to achieve a high level of cultural and economic prosperity.
* Date : 427
|434||Attila the Hun|
|Attila (/ˈætᵻlə/ or /əˈtɪlə/; fl. circa 406–453), frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. Attila was a leader of the Hunnic Empire, a tribal confederation consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans among others, on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe.
* Date : 434 ~ 453
|439||Northern Wei unified northern China|
|Described as 'part of an era of political turbulence and intense social and cultural change', the Northern Wei Dynasty is particularly noted for unifying northern China in 439: this was also a period of introduced foreign ideas; such as Buddhism, which became firmly established.
* Date : 439
|475||Goguryeo captured Wiryeseong|
|In 475, Jangsu launched a full-scale invasion from both land and sea against the now politically unstable kingdom of Baekje. Dorim was successful in gaining information about Baekje, and consequently Gaero was not at all prepared for the assault formulated by Jangsu. With momentum now in his favor, Jangsu then proceeded toward the capital and easily captured the city of Wiryeseong and slew Gaero. Soon after, Jangsu burned the capital to the ground, along with several other cities that he conquered from Baekje.
* Date : 475
|476||Fall of the Western Roman Empire|
|By 476 when Odoacer deposed the Emperor Romulus, the Western Roman Emperor wielded negligible military, political, or financial power and had no effective control over the scattered Western domains that could still be described as Roman.
* Date : 476
|Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Latin: Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of West Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
* Date : 481