이시스 (Isis) – 이름을 셀 수 없는 여신(Goddess)

Isis Myrionymos

이집트 여신(Goddess) 이시스(Isis)를 칭송할 때 부르던 이름 중에 ‘헤아릴 수 없을 만큼 많은 이름을 가진(myrionymos)’ 이라는 것이 있다.

* 이시스 – 이집트 신화 : http://yellow.kr/blog/?p=1534

 

19세기 말 이집트 중부 옥시린쿠스(Oxyrhynchus) 마을의 쓰레기더미에서 ‘옥시린쿠스 파피리(Oxyrhynchus Papyri)’라고 불리는 파피루스 뭉치가 발견되었는데 그 안에서 기독교 복음서 등 수많은 작품들이 발굴되었다. 이 파피루스는 발견되고 출판된 순서에 따라 순차적으로 일련번호가 붙여졌는데, P. Oxy 1, P. Oxy 2 등으로 불리고 있다.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxyrhynchus_Papyri)

1  2

 

다음은 옥시린쿠스 파피루스(Oxyrhynchus Papyrus XI.1380. 2세기 초), 즉  ‘Invocation of Isis’ 이라는 제목의 내용에 수많은 이시스의 이름과 형용어, 별명이 나오는 부분이다. ( http://archive.org/stream/oxyrhynchuspapyr11gren#page/200/mode/2up )

 

첫번째로 이집트 도시들이, 다음에는 지중해 세계의 여러 도시들이 나온다. 편의상 이시스의 이름처럼 보이는 부분만 ‘굵게’ 강조하였다.

 

I invoke Thee, Who at Aphroditopolis art called One; Who art called Bubastis; at Letopolis Magna, One; at Aphroditopolis in the Prosopite Nome, Fleet-Commanding, Many-Shaped, Aphrodite; at Delta, Giver of Favors; at Calamisis, Gentle; at Carene, Affectionate; at Niciu, Immortal, Giver; at Momemphis, Ruler, at Psochemis, Bringer To Harbor; at Mylon, Ruler; at Hermopolis, Of Beautiful Form, Sacred; at Naucratis, Fatherless, Joy, Savior, Almighty, Most Great; at Nithine in the Gynaecopolite Nome, Aphrodite; at Pephremis, Isis, Ruler, Hestia, Lady of Every Country; at Es, Hera, Divine; at Buto, Skilled in Calculation; at Thonis, Love; in the Saite Nome, Victorious, Athena, Nymph; at Caene, Joy; at Sais, Hera, Ruler, Perfect; at Iseum, Isis; at Sebennytus, Inventiveness, Mistress, Hera, Holy; at Hermopolis, Aphrodite, Queen, Holy; at Diospolis Parva, Ruler; at Bubastus of Old, at Heliopolis, Aphrodite, at Aithribis, Maia, Supporter; at Hiera in the Phthemphuthite Nome, Lotus-Bearing; at Teouchis, Sacred,  Mistress; among the Bucoli, Maia; at Xois of Old, Oracular; at Apis, Understanding; at Leuce Acte, Aphrodite, Mouchis [probably “She of Mouchis;” Mouchis was near Aphroditopolis], Eseremphis [Greek version of Egyptian name meaning “Isis the Year”]; at Choatine, Victorious; at …, Skilled in Writing; at Cynopolis in the Busirite Nome, Praxidice [a justice-bringing Goddess]; at Busiris, Fortune, Good; at Hermopolis in the Mendesian Nome, Leader; at Pharbaethus, Of Beautiful Form; at Isidium in the Sethroite Nome, Saviour of Men; at Heracleopolis in the Sethroite Nome, Mistress; at Phernouphis, Ruler of Cities; at Leontopolis, Serpent, Good; at Tanis, Of Gracious Form, Hera; at Schedia, Inventiveness; at Heracleum, Lady of the Sea; at Canopus, Leader of the Muses; at Menouthis, Truth; at Meniouis, Seated Before Io in Whose Honor … Is Founded; at M…Enestium, Most Great, Vulture-Sharped, Aphrodite; at Taposiris, Thauestis [unsure, but may be related to a popular Egyptian name, Thaues or Thauesis, meaning “Of Isis”] Hera, Giver; in the Island, Swiftly Victorious; at Peucestis, Pilot; at Melais, Many-Formed; at Menouphis, Warlike; in the Metelite Nome, Kore; at Charax, Athena; at Plinthine, Hestia; at Pelusium, Bringer To Harbor; in the Casian District Tachnepsis; at the Outlet, Isis, Preserver;

In Arabia, Great Goddess; in the Island, Giver of Victory in Sacred Games; in Lycia, Leto; at Myra in Lycia, Sage, Freedom; at Cnidus, Dispeller of Attack, Discoverer; at Cyrene, Isis; in Crete, Dictynnis; at Chalcedon, Themis; at Rome, Warlike; in the Cyclades Islands, Of Threefold Nature, Artemis; at Patmos, Young; at Paphos, Hallowed, Divine, Gentle; in Chios, Marching; in Salamis, Observer; in Cyprus, All-Bounteous; in Chalcidice, Holy; in Pieria, Youthful; in Asia, Worshipped at the Three Ways; at Petra, Savior; at Hypsele, Most Great; at Rhinocolura, All-Seeing; at Dora, Friendship; at Stratonos Pyrgos Hellas, Good; at Ascalon, Mightiest; at Sinope, Many-Named; at Raphis, Mistress; at Tripolis, Supporter; at Gaza, Abundant; at Delphi, Best, Fairest; at Bambyce, Atargatis; among the Thracians and in Delos, Many-Named; among the Amazons, Warlike; among the Indians, Maia; among the Thessalians, Moon; among the Persians, Latina; among the Magi, Kore, Thapseusis [this name is hard to make out; possibly a specifically Persian name, possibly a magical name]; at Susa, Nania [possibly a syncretic Isis-Innana]; in Syrophoenicia, Goddess; in Samothrace, Bull-Faced; at Pergamum, Mistress; in Pontus, Immaculate; in Italy, Love of the Gods; in Samos, Sacred; at the Hellespont, Mystic; at Myndus, Divine; in Bithynia, Helen; in Tenedos, Name of the Sun; in Caria, Hekate; in the Troad and at Dindyma, Palentra [also unknown], Unapproachable, Isis; at Berytus, Maia; at Sidon, Astarte; at Ptolemais, Understanding; at Susa in the District of the Red Sea, Sarkounis [unknown];

Thou Who interpretest first of all by the Fifteen Commandments [the word used in Greek is thesmoi, laws; I really want to know what these 15 Commandments or Laws of Isis are—so far, no one does know], Ruler of the World; Guardian and Guide, and Lady of the Mouths and Rivers and of Seas; Skilled in Writing and Calculations, Understanding; Who Also Bringest Back the Nile Over Every Country; the Beautiful Animal [probably, the Cow] of All the Gods; the Glad Face in Lethe; the Leader of the Muses; the Many-Eyed; the Comely Goddess in Olympus; Ornament of the Female Sex and Affectionate; Providing Sweetness in Assemblies; the “Lock of Hair” in Festivals; the Prosperity of Observers of Lucky Days; Harpocratis [possibly an expression meaning something like the “darling”] of the Gods; All-Ruling in the Procession of the Gods, Emnity-Hating, True Jewel of the Wind and Diadem of Life; By Whose Command Images and Animals of All the Gods, Having … of Thy Name, are Worshipped; O Lady Isis, Greatest of the Gods, First of Names, Io Sothis;

Thou rulest over the Mid-Air and the Immeasurable; Thou devisest the weaving of … ; it is also Thy will that women in health come to anchor with men; all the elders sacrifice; all the maidens at Heracleopolis turn to Thee and dedicated the country to Thee; Thou art seen by those who invoke Thee faithfully; from Whom … in virtue of the 365 combined days; gentle and placable is the favor of Thy Two Ordinances [like the Commandments, I want to know!]; Thou bringest the Sun from rising unto setting, and all the Gods are glad; at the rising of the stars the people of the country worship Thee unceasingly and the other sacred animals in the sanctuary of Osiris; they become joyful when they name Thee; the spirits become Thy subjects; [the next few lines are very fragmentary] and Thou bringest decay on what Thou wilt and to the destroyed bringest increase, and Thou purifiest all things; every day Thou didst appoint for joy; Thou … having discovered all the … of wine providest it first in the Festivals of the Gods; Thou becamest the discoverer of all things wet and dry and cold and hot, of which all things are composed; Thou broughtest back alone Thy Brother, piloting Him safely and burying Him fittingly; Leader of Diadems; Lady of Increase and Decay,Thou didst establish shrines of Isis in all cities for all time; and didst deliver to all human beings observances and a perfect year; and to all human beings in every place, Thou didst show… in order that all might know that Thou … ; Thou didst establish Thy son Horus Apollon everywhere, the youthful Lord of the Whole World and for all time; Thou didst make the power of women equal to that of men; and in the sanctuary Thou didst … ; Thou, Lady of the Land, bringest the flood of rivers—in Egypt, the Nile, in Tripolis, the Eleutherus, in India, the Ganges; owing to Whom the whole exists through all rain, every spring, all dew, and snow and all the land and sea; Thou art also the Mistress of All Things Forever; Thou madest the … of the Dioscuri; Thou hast dominion over winds and thunders and lightnings and snows; Thou, the Lady of War and Rule, easily destroyest tyrants by trusty counsels; Thou madest great Osiris immortal and delivered to every country religious observances; likewise Thou madest immortal Horus who showed Himself a benefactor and good; Thou art the Lady of Light and Flames… [then the Invocation moves to a praise of Horus, and then it breaks off]


<관련 그림>

 

 

3

< Statuette of Venus-Isis-Demeter >

– 알렉산드리아 고대 박물관 / 기원전 31 ~ 395

http://antiquities.bibalex.org/Collection/Detail.aspx?lang=en&a=261

 

 

 

4

< Isis-Sothis-Demeter >

– 바티칸 박물관 / 131 ~ 138년 (로마 하드리아누스 시대)

http://mv.vatican.va/3_EN/pages/x-Schede/MEZs/MEZs_Sala03_01_11_010.html

 

 

 

5

< Isis-Aphrodite >

– 로마시대, 2세기

http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/100001325

 

 

 

6

< ISIS-MINERVA-FORTUNA >

– 로마시대, 2세기

http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/gods_isis_minerva_fortuna.htm

 

 

 

7

< Isis-Tyche-Fortuna >

– 로마시대, 2세기

http://art.thewalters.org/detail/6218/isis-tyche-fortuna/

 

 

 

8

<The Goddess Isis by Athanasius Kircher, from Oedipus Aegyptiacus>

– 1652-1654년 발행

– 머리에 곡물 이삭을 장식한 이시스

 

※ 기타 등등

http://www.iub.edu/~iuam/online_modules/egypt/07.html

http://lotuspharia.freeyellow.com/thecircleofisis/id78.html

http://antiquities.bibalex.org/Collection/Detail.aspx?a=1157&lang=en

http://art.thewalters.org/detail/6611/isis-fortuna/

http://www.temehu.com/Cities_sites/museum-of-cyrene.htm

 


<참고자료 및 관련자료>

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxyrhynchus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxyrhynchus_Papyri

http://archive.org/stream/oxyrhynchuspapyr11gren#page/200/mode/2up

http://archive.org/stream/oxyrhynchuspapyr11gren/oxyrhynchuspapyr11gren_djvu.txt

옥시린쿠스 파피루스 : http://cafe.naver.com/heavenlyspy/118

서양 고대문명 비밀 풀리나

악마의 숫자..`666` 아닌 `616`?

이시스 (Isis) – 이름을 셀 수 없는 여신(Goddess)

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