|The Safavid dynasty (/ˈsɑːfəvɪd/; Persian: دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi, Azerbaijani: صفويلر سولالهسى Səfəvilər sülaləsi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.
* Date : 1501
|1509/02/03||Battle of Diu (1509)|
|The Battle of Diu, sometimes referred to as the Second Battle of Chaul, was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, near the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Calicut with support of Ottomans, the Republic of Venice and the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik).
* Date : 1509/02/03
|1511||Fugger, golden age|
|The Fugger family (German pronunciation: [ˈfʊɡɐ]) is a German family that was a historically prominent group of European bankers, members of the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century mercantile patriciate of Augsburg, international mercantile bankers, and venture capitalists. Alongside the Welser family, the family controlled much of the European economy in the sixteenth century and accumulated enormous wealth.
* Date : 1511 ~ 1550
|The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation (from Latin reformatio, lit. 'restoration, renewal'), was a schism from the Roman Catholic Church initiated by Martin Luther and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other early Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe. Timing most commonly used for this period is from 1517 (the Ninety-five Theses are published by Martin Luther) to 1648 (Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War).
* Date : 1517
|1519/02||Spanish conquest of Mexico|
|The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire (begun February 1519) was one of the most significant events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
* Date : 1519/02 ~ 1521/08/13
|1519/08/10||Magellan, Voyage of circumnavigation|
|Ferdinand Magellan (/məˈɡɛlən/ or /məˈdʒɛlən/; Portuguese: Fernão de Magalhães, IPA: [fɨɾˈnɐ̃w ðɨ mɐɣɐˈʎɐ̃jʃ]; Spanish: Fernando de Magallanes, IPA: [ferˈnando ðe maɣaˈʎanes]; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
* Date : 1519/08/10 ~ 1522
|1521||Jiajing wokou raids|
|The Jiajing wokou raids (嘉靖大倭寇) caused extensive damage to the coast of China in the 16th century, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor (r. 1521–67) in the Ming dynasty. The term 'wokou' originally referred to Japanese pirates who crossed the sea and raided Korea and China; however, by the mid-Ming, the wokou consisted of multinational crewmen that included the Japanese and the Portuguese, but a great majority of them were Chinese instead. Mid-Ming wokou activity began to pose a serious problem in the 1540s, reached its peak in 1555, and subsided by 1567, with the extent of the destruction spreading across the coastal regions of Jiangnan, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong.
* Date : 1521 ~ 1567
|1526||Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine|
|The Iwami Ginzan (石見銀山?) was an underground silver mine in the city of Ōda, in Shimane Prefecture on the main island of Honshu, Japan. It was the largest silver mine in Japanese history. It was active for almost four hundred years, from its discovery in 1526 to its closing in 1923.
* Date : 1526
|1532||Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire|
|The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military skirmishes, 180 Spanish soldiers under conquistador Francisco Pizarro, his brothers, and their native allies captured the Sapa Inca Atahualpa in the 1532 Battle of Cajamarca. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory in 1572 and colonization of the region as the Viceroyalty of Peru. The conquest of the Inca Empire led to spin-off campaigns into present-day Chile and Colombia, as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin.
* Date : 1532 ~ 1572
|Nicolaus Copernicus published the definitive statement of his system in De Revolutionibus in 1543. Copernicus began to write it in 1506 and finished it in 1530, but did not publish it until the year of his death.
* Date : 1543
|The Nanban trade (南蛮貿易 Nanban bōeki?, 'Southern barbarian trade') or the Nanban trade period (南蛮貿易時代 Nanban bōeki jidai?, 'Southern barbarian trade period') in the history of Japan extends from the arrival of the first Europeans – Portuguese explorers, missionaries and merchants – to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the 'Sakoku' Seclusion Edicts.
* Date : 1543
|Founded in 1545 as a mining town, it soon produced fabulous wealth, and the population eventually exceeded 200,000 people. The city gave rise to a Spanish expression, still in use: vale un Potosí, ('to be worth a Potosí') meaning 'to be of great value'. The rich mountain, Cerro Rico, produced an estimated 60% of all silver mined in the world during the second half of the 16th century.
* Date : 1545/04/01
|1550||Altan Khan besieged Beijing|
|Altan Khan used his military strength to threaten the Ming dynasty of China. He led raids into inland China in 1529, 1530 and 1542 returning with plunder and livestock. In 1550 he crossed the Great Wall and besieged Beijing setting the suburbs on fire.
* Date : 1550
|1556/01/13||1556 Shaanxi earthquake|
|The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake (Chinese: 华县大地震; pinyin: Huáxiàn Dàdìzhèn) or Jiajing earthquake (Chinese: 嘉靖大地震; pinyin: Jiājìng Dàdìzhèn) was a catastrophic earthquake and is also the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people. It occurred on the morning of 23 January 1556 in Shaanxi, during the Ming Dynasty.
* Date : 1556/01/13
|1557||Spanish Crown to declare bankruptcy|
|Spain had experienced severe financial difficulties in the later 16th century, that had caused the Spanish Crown to declare bankruptcy four times in the late 1500s (1557, 1560, 1576, 1596). However, the constant financial strain did not prevent the rise of Spanish power throughout the 16th century.
* Date : 1557
|1557||Golden age of Genoese bankers|
|Genoa underwent something of a revival as a junior associate of the Spanish Empire, with Genoese bankers, in particular, financing many of the Spanish crown's foreign endeavors from their counting houses in Seville. Fernand Braudel has even called the period 1557 to 1627 the 'age of the Genoese', 'of a rule that was so discreet and sophisticated that historians for a long time failed to notice it' (Braudel 1984 p. 157), although the modern visitor passing brilliant Mannerist and Baroque palazzo facades along Genoa's Strada Nova (now Via Garibaldi) or via Balbi cannot fail to notice that there was conspicuous wealth, which in fact was not Genoese but concentrated in the hands of a tightly-knit circle of banker-financiers, true 'venture capitalists'. Genoa's trade, however, remained closely dependent on control of Mediterranean sealanes, and the loss of Chios to the Ottoman Empire (1566), struck a severe blow.
* Date : 1557 ~ 1627
|1568||Dutch War of Independence|
|The Eighty Years' War (Dutch: Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Spanish: Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
* Date : 1568 ~ 1648
|1571/10/07||Battle of Lepanto|
|The Battle of Lepanto was a naval engagement taking place on 7 October 1571 in which a fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of European Catholic maritime states arranged by Pope Pius V, financed by Habsburg Spain and led by admiral Don John of Austria, decisively defeated the fleet of the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, where the Ottoman forces sailing westwards from their naval station in Lepanto (the Venetian name of ancient Naupactus Ναύπακτος, Ottoman İnebahtı) met the fleet of the Holy League sailing east from Messina, Sicily.
* Date : 1571/10/07
|The Spanish Armada (Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally 'Great and Most Fortunate Navy') was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in August 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
* Date : 1588/08/08
|1590/08/12||Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Unified Japan|
|The 1590 Siege of Odawara against the Hōjō clan in the Kantō region eliminated the last resistance to Hideyoshi's authority. His victory signified the end of the Sengoku period.
* Date : 1590/08/12
|1592/04/13||Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)|
|The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces.
* Date : 1592/04/13 ~ 1598
|1600||The General Crisis|
|The General Crisis is the term used by some historians to describe the period of widespread conflict and instability that occurred from the early 17th century to the early 18th century in Europe and in more recent historiography in the world at large. The concept is much debated by historians and there is no consensus.
* Date : 1600 ~ 1700
|1602||Amsterdam Stock Exchange|
|The Amsterdam Stock Exchange was established in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or 'VOC') for dealings in its printed stocks and bonds. It was subsequently renamed the Amsterdam Bourse and was the first to formally begin trading in securities.
* Date : 1602
|The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府?) and the Edo bakufu (江戸幕府?), was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shogun, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern (Kinsei (近世?)).
* Date : 1603/03/24
|1616/02/17||Nurhaci founded the Jin dynasty|
|In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself Khan and founded the Jin dynasty (aisin gurun), often called the Later Jin in reference to the legacy of the earlier Jurchen Jin dynasty of the 12th century. He constructed a palace at Mukden (present-day Shenyang, Liaoning).
* Date : 1616/02/17
|1618/05/23||Thirty Years' War|
|The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts, as well as the deadliest European religious war in history, resulting in eight million casualties.
* Date : 1618/05/23 ~ 1648/05/15
|1619/04/14||Battle of Sarhu|
|The Battle of Sarhū (薩爾滸之戰, Sà'ěrhǔ zhī zhàn) refers to the series of conflicts between the Manchus of the Later Jin (later known as the Qing dynasty) and Ming dynasty of China in the winter of year 1619, which ended in the overwhelming victory for the Manchus.
* Date : 1619/04/14
|1627||First Manchu invasion of Korea|
|The first Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1627, when Hong Taiji led the Manchu army against Korea's Joseon dynasty. It was followed by the second Manchu invasion of Korea.
* Date : 1627
|Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, nicknamed 'Dashing King', was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.
* Date : 1631 ~ 1645
|1636/12||Second Manchu invasion of Korea|
|The second Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1636, when the Manchu Qing Empire defeated Korea's Joseon dynasty, forcing it to recognize the Qing Empire as the rightful dynasty of China, instead of the previous Ming Dynasty. It followed the first Manchu invasion of Korea of 1627.
* Date : 1636/12
|Sakoku (鎖国?, 'closed country' but commonly translated as 'period of national isolation') was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which severe restrictions were placed on the entry of foreign nationals to Japan and Japanese nationals were forbidden to leave the country on penalty of death if they returned without special permission. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39 and largely remained officially in effect until 1866, although the arrival of the American Black Ships of Commodore Matthew Perry which started the opening of Japan to Western trade eroded its enforcement severely.
* Date : 1639
|1642/08/22||English Civil War|
|The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ('Roundheads') and Royalists ('Cavaliers') over, principally, the manner of England's government. The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
* Date : 1642/08/22 ~ 1651/09/03
|1644||The fall of the Ming and the Qing takeover|
|The fall of the Ming dynasty was largely caused by a combination of factors. Kenneth Swope argues that one key factor was deteriorating relations between Ming Royalty and the Ming Empire's military leadership. Other factors include repeated military expeditions to the North, inflationary pressures caused by spending too much from the imperial treasury, natural disasters and epidemics of disease. Contributing further to the chaos was a peasant rebellion in Beijing in 1644 and a series of weak emperors. Ming power would hold out in what is now southern China for years, though eventually would be overtaken by the Manchus.
* Date : 1644
|1648/10/24||Peace of Westphalia|
|The Peace of Westphalia (German: Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster, effectively ending the European wars of religion. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic.
* Date : 1648/10/24
|The Navigation Acts were a series of English laws that restricted colonial trade to the mother country. They were first enacted in 1651 and throughout that time until 1663, and were repealed in 1849. They reflected the policy of mercantilism, which sought to keep all the benefits of trade inside the Empire, and to minimise the loss of gold and silver to foreigners. They prohibited the colonies from trading directly with the Netherlands, Spain, France, and their colonies.
* Date : 1651
|1652||First Anglo-Dutch War|
|The First Anglo-Dutch War (Dutch: Eerste Engels-Nederlandse oorlog) (1652–54) was a conflict fought entirely at sea between the navies of the Commonwealth of England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Caused by disputes over trade, the war began with English attacks on Dutch merchant shipping, but expanded to vast fleet actions. Ultimately, it resulted in the English Navy gaining control of the seas around England, and forced the Dutch to accept an English monopoly on trade with England and her colonies. It was the first of the Anglo-Dutch Wars.
* Date : 1652 ~ 1654/04
|1687/07/05||Newton's law of universal gravitation|
|Sir Isaac Newton PRS (/ˈnjuːtən/; 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist (described in his own day as a 'natural philosopher') who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ('Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy'), first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics.
* Date : 1687/07/05
|The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange. William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascension of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England, James's daughter, in conjunction with the documentation of the Bill of Rights 1689.
* Date : 1688
|1689/08/27||Treaty of Nerchinsk|
|The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 (Russian: Нерчинский договор, Nerčinskij dogovor; simplified Chinese: 尼布楚条约; traditional Chinese: 尼布楚條約; pinyin: Níbùchǔ Tiáoyuē, Xiao'erjing: نِبُچُ تِيَوْيُؤ) was the first treaty between Russia and China. The Russians gave up the area north of the Amur River as far as the Stanovoy Mountains and kept the area between the Argun River and Lake Baikal. This border along the Argun River and Stanovoy Mountains lasted until the Amur Annexation in 1860. For background see History of Sino-Russian relations.
* Date : 1689/08/27
|1700||Great Northern War|
|The Great Northern War (1700–21) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe.
* Date : 1700 ~ 1721
|1701||War of the Spanish Succession|
|The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II.
* Date : 1701 ~ 1714
|1701/01/18||Kingdom of Prussia|
|The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Its capital was Berlin.
* Date : 1701/01/18
|1738||Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire|
|Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739. His army had easily defeated the Mughals at the battle at Karnal and would eventually capture the Mughal capital in the aftermath of the battle.
* Date : 1738 ~ 1740
|1740/12/16||War of the Austrian Succession|
|The War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748) involved most of the powers of Europe over the question of Maria Theresa's succession to the Habsburg Monarchy. The war included King George's War in British America, the War of Jenkins' Ear (which formally began on 23 October 1739), the First Carnatic War in India, the Jacobite rising of 1745 in Scotland, and the First and Second Silesian Wars.
* Date : 1740/12/16 ~ 1748/10/18
|Amsterdam in this way became the 18th-century hub of international finance, in tandem with London. The Amsterdam and London stock exchanges were closely aligned and quoted each other's stocks and bonds (Britain often used the Dutch financial institutions to pay subsidies to its allies and to settle its exchange bills in the Russian trade).
* Date : 1744
|1756/08||Seven Years' War|
|The Seven Years' War was a war fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763. It involved every European great power of the time except the Ottoman Empire, spanning five continents, and affected Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines.
* Date : 1756/08 ~ 1763/02/10
|1757/06/23||Battle of Plassey|
|The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23 June 1757. The battle consolidated the Company's presence in Bengal, which later expanded to cover much of India over the next hundred years.
* Date : 1757/06/23
|1759||Xinjiang under Qing rule|
|Xinjiang under Qing rule refers to the Qing dynasty's rule over Xinjiang from the late 1750s to 1912. In the history of Xinjiang, the Qing rule was established in the final phase of the Dzungar–Qing War when the Dzungar Khanate was conquered by the Qing dynasty established by the Manchus in China, and lasted until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.
* Date : 1759
|The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system.
* Date : 1760
|1775/04/19||American Revolutionary War|
|The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also referred to as the American War of Independence and the Revolutionary War in the United States, was an armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its North American colonies that after onset of the war declared independence as the United States of America.
* Date : 1775/04/19 ~ 1783/09/03
|1776||Watt steam engine|
|James Watt FRS FRSE (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
* Date : 1776
|1776/03/09||The Wealth of Nations|
|An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. First published in 1776, the book offers one of the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth, and is today a fundamental work in classical economics. By reflecting upon the economics at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the book touches upon such broad topics as the division of labour, productivity, and free markets.
* Date : 1776/03/09
|1780/12/20||Fourth Anglo-Dutch War|
|The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784) was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. The war, contemporary with the War of the American Independence, broke out over British and Dutch disagreements on the legality and conduct of Dutch trade with Britain's enemies in that war.
* Date : 1780/12/20 ~ 1784/05
|1782||Great Tenmei famine|
|The Great Tenmei famine (天明の大飢饉, Tenmei no daikikin) was a famine which affected Japan during the Edo period. It is considered to have begun in 1782, and lasted until 1788. It was named after the Tenmei era (1781–1789), during the reign of Emperor Kōkaku. The ruling shoguns during the famine were Tokugawa Ieharu and Tokugawa Ienari. The famine was the deadliest one during the early modern period in Japan.
* Date : 1782 ~ 1788
|1789||The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848|
|The Age of Revolution: Europe: 1789–1848 is a book by Eric Hobsbawm, first published in 1962.
* Date : 1789 ~ 1848
|The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
* Date : 1789/07/14
|The Qajar dynasty (About this sound listen (help·info); Persian: سلسله قاجار Selsele-ye Qājār; also romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Azerbaijani: قاجارلر Qacarlar) was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia (Iran) from 1785 to 1925.
* Date : 1794
|1796||White Lotus Rebellion|
|The White Lotus Rebellion (Chinese: 川楚白蓮教起義; pinyin: Chuān chŭ bái lián jiào qǐ yì, 1796–1806) was a rebellion initiated by followers of the White Lotus movement during the Qing dynasty of China. The rebellion began in 1794, when large groups of rebels claiming White Lotus affiliations rose up within the mountainous region that separated Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces.
* Date : 1796 ~ 1806
|The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, primarily led and financed by the United Kingdom.
* Date : 1803/05/18 ~ 1815/11/20
|1804/05/18||Napoleon, Emperor of the French|
|Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again in 1815.
* Date : 1804/05/18
|1805/10/21||Battle of Trafalgar|
|The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).
* Date : 1805/10/21
|1806/08/06||Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire|
|The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when the Emperor Francis II abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. Although the abdication was considered legal, the dissolution of the imperial bonds was not and several states refused to recognise the end of the empire at the time.
* Date : 1806/08/06
|The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. As a response to the naval blockade of the French coasts enacted by the British government on 16 May 1806, Napoleon issued the Berlin Decree on 21 November 1806, which brought into effect a large-scale embargo against British trade.
* Date : 1806/11/21
|Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie-Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne. Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later.
* Date : 1814/04/06
|1814/11||Congress of Vienna|
|The Congress of Vienna (German: Wiener Kongress) was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
* Date : 1814/11 ~ 1815/06
|1815/04/10||1815 eruption of Mount Tambora|
|The 1815 Eruption of Mount Tambora was one of the most powerful eruptions in recorded history and is the most recent known VEI-7 event. The eruption of the volcano, on the island of Sumbawa in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia), reached a climax on 10 April 1815 and was followed by between six months and three years of increased steaming and small phreatic eruptions.
* Date : 1815/04/10
|1815/06/18||Battle of Waterloo|
|The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: an Anglo-led Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Prince of Wahlstatt.
* Date : 1815/06/18
|The Holy Alliance (German: Heilige Allianz; Russian: Священный союз, Svyashchennyy soyuz; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia. It was created after the ultimate defeat of Napoleon at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia and signed in Paris on 26 September 1815.
* Date : 1815/09/26
|1816||Britain, Gold standard|
|A formal gold specie standard was first established in 1821, when Britain adopted it following the introduction of the gold sovereign by the new Royal Mint at Tower Hill in 1816.
* Date : 1816
|The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to take control of any independent state in North or South America would be viewed as 'the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States'.
* Date : 1823/12/02
|1825/01/18||Locomotion No. 1|
|Locomotion No. 1 (originally named Active) is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway. Built by George and Robert Stephenson's company Robert Stephenson and Company in 1825.
* Date : 1825/01/18
|The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, saw the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown in 1848.
* Date : 1830/07/26
|Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and an important figure of German idealism. He achieved wide renown in his day and, while primarily influential within the continental tradition of philosophy, has become increasingly influential in the analytic tradition as well. Although he remains a divisive figure, his canonical stature within Western philosophy is universally recognized.
* Date : 1831/11/14
|1834||Poor Law Amendment Act 1834|
|The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey. It completely replaced earlier legislation based on the Poor Law of 1601 and attempted to fundamentally change the poverty relief system in England and Wales (Scotland made similar changes to its poor law in 1845).
* Date : 1834
|1839/11/03||First Opium War|
|The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭, 1839–42), also known as the Opium War and the Anglo-Chinese War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice for foreign nationals in China.
* Date : 1839/11/03 ~ 1842/08/29
|1842/08/29||Treaty of Nanking|
|The Treaty of Nanking or Nanjing was a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China on 29 August 1842. It was the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties on the ground that Britain had no obligations in return.
* Date : 1842/08/29
|1844/07/19||Bank Charter Act 1844|
|The Bank Charter Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c. 32), sometimes referred to as the Peel Banking Act of 1844, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England.
* Date : 1844/07/19
|1845||Great Famine (Ireland)|
|The Great Famine or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
* Date : 1845 ~ 1849
|The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican War or the Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 US annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory, despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
* Date : 1846/04/25 ~ 1848/02/03
|1846/05/16||Corn Laws repealed|
|'Corn' included any grain that requires grinding, especially wheat. The laws were introduced by the Importation Act 1815 (55 Geo. 3 c. 26) and repealed by the Importation Act 1846 (9 & 10 Vict. c. 22). The laws are often considered examples of British mercantilism.
* Date : 1846/05/16
|1848/02/21||The Communist Manifesto|
|The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms.
* Date : 1848/02/21
|1848||The Age of Capital: 1848–1875|
|The Age of Capital: 1848–1875 is a book by Eric Hobsbawm, first published in 1975. It is the second in a trilogy of books about 'the long 19th century' (coined by Hobsbawm), preceded by The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848 and followed by The Age of Empire: 1875–1914. A fourth book, The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991, acts as a sequel to the trilogy.
* Date : 1848 ~ 1875
|1848/01/24||California Gold Rush|
|The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The first to hear confirmed information of the gold rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and Latin America, and they were the first to start flocking to the state in late 1848. All in all, the news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. Of the 300,000, approximately half arrived by sea and half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail.
* Date : 1848/01/24 ~ 1855
|1848/02/23||Revolutions of 1848|
|The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history.
* Date : 1848/02/23 ~ 1849
|1851||Taiping Heavenly Kingdom|
|The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing (present-day Nanjing).
* Date : 1851 ~ 1864/07
|The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to March 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.
* Date : 1853/10 ~ 1856/03/30
|1854/03/31||Convention of Kanagawa|
|On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 日米和親条約 Hepburn: Nichibei Washin Jōyaku?, 'Japan–US Treaty of Peace and Amity') or Kanagawa Treaty (神奈川条約 Kanagawa Jōyaku?) was the first treaty between the United States of America and the Tokugawa Shogunate. Signed under threat of force, it effectively meant the end of Japan’s 220-year-old policy of national seclusion (sakoku), by opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American vessels. It also ensured the safety of American castaways and established the position of an American consul in Japan. The treaty also precipitated the signing of similar treaties establishing diplomatic relations with other western powers.
* Date : 1854/03/31
|1856/10/08||Second Opium War|
|The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
* Date : 1856/10/08 ~ 1860/10/24
|1857/05/10||Indian Rebellion of 1857|
|The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a rebellion in India against the rule of the British East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to July 1859.
* Date : 1857/05/10 ~ 1859/07/08
|The British Raj (/rɑːdʒ/; from rāj, literally, 'rule' in Hindustani) was the rule of the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India.
* Date : 1858/09/08
|1859/11/24||On the Origin of Species|
|On the Origin of Species (or more completely, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life), published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology.
* Date : 1859/11/24
|1860/10/24||Convention of Peking|
|The Convention or First Convention of Peking, sometimes now known as the Convention of Beijing, is an agreement comprising three distinct treaties concluded between the Qing Empire (China) and the United Kingdom, France, and Russia in 1860. In China, they are regarded as among the unequal treaties. The original copy of the Convention is kept in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan.
* Date : 1860/10/24
|The Self-Strengthening Movement (洋務運動), c. 1861 – 1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers.
* Date : 1861
|1861/04/12||American Civil War|
|The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States fought from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America. The Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U.S. history.
* Date : 1861/04/12 ~ 1865/05/09
|Heungseon Daewongun (흥선대원군, 21 December 1820 – 22 February 1898) or The Daewongun (대원군), Guktaegong (국태공, 'The Great Archduke') or formally Heungseon Heonui Daewonwang (흥선헌의대원왕) and also known to contemporary western diplomats as Prince Gung, was the title of Yi Ha-eung, regent of Joseon during the minority of Emperor Gojong in the 1860s and until his death a key political figure of late Joseon Korea.
* Date : 1863/12/13
|1866||Rothschild family, Golden Age|
|During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private fortune in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in modern world history. The family's wealth was divided among various descendants and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits. The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of conspiracy theories, many of which are antisemitic in nature.
* Date : 1866 ~ 1931
|1866/10/25||French campaign against Korea|
|The French campaign against Korea was an 1866 punitive expedition undertaken by the Second French Empire in retaliation for the earlier Korean execution of several French Catholic missionaries.
* Date : 1866/10/25
|Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dissolved following its defeat in the First World War.
* Date : 1867/05/29
|The Meiji Restoration (明治維新 Meiji Ishin?), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.
* Date : 1868/01/03 ~ 1889
|In the United States of America, a series of transcontinental railroads built over the last third of the 19th century created a nationwide transportation network that united the country by rail. The first of these, the 3,103-kilometre (1,928 mi) 'Pacific Railroad', was built by the Central Pacific Railroad and Union Pacific Railroad to link the San Francisco Bay at Alameda, California with the nation's existing eastern railroad network at Council Bluffs, Iowa/Omaha, Nebraska thereby creating the world's first transcontinental railroad when it opened in 1869.
* Date : 1869/05/10
|The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It was constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869. After 10 years of construction, it was officially opened on November 17, 1869.
* Date : 1869/11/17
|The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (German: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, French: Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1870 – 10 May 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
* Date : 1870/07/19 ~ 1871/05/10
|1871/01/18||Unification of Germany|
|The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles in France.
* Date : 1871/01/18
|1871/06/10||United States expedition to Korea|
|The United States expedition to Korea, the Shinmiyangyo, or simply the Korean Expedition, in 1871, was the first American military action in Korea.
* Date : 1871/06/10
|The Long Depression was a worldwide price and economic recession, beginning in 1873 and running either through the spring of 1879, or 1896, depending on the metrics used.
* Date : 1873/10/01 ~ 1896/3/31
|1875||The Age of Empire|
|The Age of Empire: 1875–1914 is a book by the British historian Eric Hobsbawm, published in 1987.
* Date : 1875 ~ 1914
|1876/02/27||Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876|
|Korean ports are formally opened under the Treaty of Ganghwa with Imperial Japan.
* Date : 1876/02/27
|1878/07/13||Congress of Berlin|
|The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of the era's six great powers in Europe (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro). It aimed at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan Peninsula after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Berlin, which replaced the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, which had been signed three months earlier between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
* Date : 1878/07/13
|1879/10/07||Dual Alliance (1879)|
|The Dual Alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty on October 7th, 1879 as part of Germany's Otto von Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent or limit war.
* Date : 1879/10/07
|1879/10/22||Edison, Electric light|
|After many experiments, first with carbon filaments and then with platinum and other metals, in the end, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The first successful test was on October 22, 1879; it lasted 13.5 hours.
* Date : 1879/10/22
|1882/05/20||Triple Alliance (1882)|
|The Triple Alliance, also known as the Triplice, was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed on 20 May 1882 and renewed periodically until World War I.
* Date : 1882/05/20
|1882/09||Egypt under the British|
|The history of Egypt under the British lasts from 1882, when it was occupied by British forces during the Anglo-Egyptian War, until 1956, when the last British forces withdrew in accordance with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954 after the Suez Crisis.
* Date : 1882/09
|1882/10/04||China–Korea Treaty of 1882|
|The China–Korea Treaty of 1882 (中朝商民水陸貿易章程, 조청상민수륙무역장정) was negotiated between representatives of the Qing Dynasty and the Joseon Dynasty in October 1882. This agreement has been described as the Joseon-Qing Communication and Commerce Rules; and it has been called the Sino-Korean Regulations for Maritime and Overland Trade. The treaty remained in effect until 1895. After 1895, China lost its influence over Korea because of the First Sino-Japanese War.
* Date : 1882/10/04
|The Sino-French War (中法戰爭), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
* Date : 1884/08 ~ 1885/04
|Kim Okgyun leads the Gapsin coup. In 3 days, Chinese forces are able to overwhelm the Progressives and their Japanese supporters.
* Date : 1884/12/04
|Bismarck resigned at Wilhelm II's insistence on 18 March 1890, at the age of seventy-five.
* Date : 1890/03/18
|The Franco-Russian Alliance, or Russo-French Rapprochement, was an alliance formed by the agreements of 1891–94; it lasted until 1917. The strengthening of the German Empire, the creation of the Triple Alliance of 1882, and the exacerbation of Franco-German and Russo-German contradictions at the end of the 1880s led to a common foreign policy and mutual strategic military interests between France and Russia.
* Date : 1894/01/04
|1894/01/11||Donghak Peasant Revolution|
|Donghak Rebellion prompts the First Sino-Japanese War and Gabo Reforms.
* Date : 1894/01/11 ~ 1895/03/29
|1894/08/01||First Sino-Japanese War|
|The First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire and the Empire of Japan, primarily over influence of Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895.
* Date : 1894/08/01 ~ 1895/04/17
|The Tripartite Intervention or Triple Intervention (三国干渉) was a diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki signed between Japan and Qing Dynasty China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese reaction against the Triple Intervention was one of the underlying causes of the subsequent Russo-Japanese War.
* Date : 1895/04/23
|The Belle Époque was so named in retrospect, when it began to be considered a "Golden Age" in contrast to the horrors of World War I. The Belle Époque was a period in which, according to historian R. R. Palmer: "European civilisation achieved its greatest power in global politics, and also exerted its maximum influence upon peoples outside Europe."
* Date : 1896 ~ 1914/07/28
|1896/02/11||Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation|
|Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation also called Agwan Pacheon in Korean, occurred after the First Sino-Japanese War during a period of factional confrontation within the Korean royal court. King Gojong of the Joseon Dynasty and his crown prince took refuge from the Gyeongbok Palace at the Russian legation in Seoul, from which they controlled the Korean government for about one year from February 11, 1896 to February 20, 1897.
* Date : 1896/02/11 ~ 1897/02/20
|1896/03/08||Daimler Motorcoach 1886|
|On 8 March 1886, Daimler and Maybach secretly brought an American Model coach made by Wilhelm Wimpff and Sohn into the house, telling the neighbors it was a birthday gift for Mrs. Daimler. Maybach supervised the installation of a larger 1.1 hp 462 cc (28 cu in) (70 mm × 120 mm, 2.8 in × 4.7 in) version of the Grandfather Clock engine into this stagecoach and it became the first four-wheeled vehicle to reach 16 kilometres per hour (10 mph).
* Date : 1896/03/08
|1896/06/03||Sino–Russian Secret Treaty|
|The Li–Lobanov Treaty or the Sino–Russian Secret Treaty (中俄密约) was a secret and unequal treaty signed on June 3, 1896 in Moscow by foreign minister Alexey Lobanov-Rostovsky on behalf of the Russian Empire and viceroy Li Hongzhang on behalf of Qing China. The contents of the agreement were made public only in 1922.
* Date : 1896/06/03
|The Korean Empire was proclaimed in October 1897, after the Donghak Peasant Revolution of 1894 to 1895 and Gabo Reforms that swept the country from 1894 to 1896. It lasted until the annexation of Korea by Japan in August 1910.
* Date : 1897/10/12
|1898/03/26||Anglo-German naval arms race|
|The arms race between Great Britain and Germany that occurred from the last decade of the nineteenth century until the advent of World War I in 1914 was one of the intertwined causes of that conflict.
* Date : 1898/03/26
|The Spanish–American War was a conflict fought between Spain and the United States in 1898.
* Date : 1898/04/21 ~ 1898/08/13
|1898/06/11||Hundred Days' Reform|
|The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 103-day national, cultural, political, and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China. It was undertaken by the young Guangxu Emperor and his reform-minded supporters. The movement proved to be short-lived, ending in a coup d'état ('The Coup of 1898', Wuxu Coup) by powerful conservative opponents led by Empress Dowager Cixi.
* Date : 1898/06/11 ~ 1898/09/21
|The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the 'Boxers', and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to Western colonialism and associated Christian missionary activity.
* Date : 1899/11/02 ~ 1901/09/07
|1900/07||Russian invasion of Manchuria|
|By 21 September, Russian troops took Jilin and Liaodong, and by the end of the month completely occupied Manchuria, where their presence was a major factor leading to the Russo-Japanese War.
* Date : 1900/07