|533||Justinian I's campaigns|
|One of the most spectacular features of Justinian's reign was the recovery of large stretches of land around the Western Mediterranean basin that had slipped out of Imperial control in the 5th century.
* Date : 533 ~ 555
|536||Extreme weather events of 535–536|
|The extreme weather events of 535–536 were the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2000 years.
* Date : 536
|541||Plague of Justinian|
|The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.
* Date : 541 ~ 542/12
|550||Fall of Gupta Empire|
|The succession of the 6th-century Guptas is not entirely clear, but the tail end recognized ruler of the dynasty's main line was king Vishnugupta, reigning from 540 to 550. In addition to the Hun invasion, the factors, which contribute to the decline of the empire include competition from the Vakatakas and the rise of Yashodharman in Malwa.
* Date : 550
|Evidence for population decline beginning around the 6th century lends some support to the internal unrest hypothesis. The decline of Teotihuacan has been correlated to lengthy droughts related to the climate changes of 535–536. This theory of ecological decline is supported by archaeological remains that show a rise in the percentage of juvenile skeletons with evidence of malnutrition during the 6th century.
* Date : 550
|The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰜𐰇𐰛 Kök Türük Chinese: 突厥/تُكِئ; pinyin: Tūjué, Khotanese Saka Ttūrka, Ttrūka, Old Tibetan Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia. The Göktürks, under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the main power in the region and established the Turkic Khaganate, one of several nomadic dynasties which would shape the future geolocation, culture, and dominant beliefs of Turkic peoples.
* Date : 552
|553/07||Silla attacked on the Han River|
|During the reign of King Seong of Baekje, King Jinheung allied with Goguryeo and launched an attack on the Han River valley during the year 553. In a secret agreement between Silla and Goguryeo, Silla troops attacked the exhausted Baekje army in late 553.
* Date : 553/07
|562||Fall of Daegaya|
|Daegaya fell to the armies of Silla under general Kim Isabu in 562 AD; Silla, having already begun to absorb much of the Gaya confederacy, had invaded Daegaya as punishment for having allied with Baekje in 554.
* Date : 562
|The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: 隋朝; pinyin: Suí cháo) was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese in the entire China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities within its territory. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which largely inherited its foundation.
* Date : 581 ~ 618
|602||Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628|
|The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Persia.
* Date : 602 ~ 628
|612||Goguryeo repulses second Sui invasion at the Salsu|
|Second Invasion of 612. Yangdi, when he won the throne in 604, built the Grand Canal connecting the north and south of China. The south, economic base of China, and the north, political base of China, were connected by the canal, allowing transportation of troops for the massive military campaign.
* Date : 612
|The Tang dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world.
* Date : 618
|The Hegira or Hijrah (Arabic: هِجْرَة) is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in 622 CE.
* Date : 622/07/16
|630||Eastern Turkic Khaganate collapsed|
|On March 27, 630 a Tang army under the command of Li Jing defeated the Eastern Turkic Khaganate under the command of Illig Qaghan at the Battle of Yinshan (陰山之戰 / 阴山之战). Illig Qaghan fled to Ishbara Shad, but on May 2, 630 Zhang Baoxiang's army advanced to Ishbara Shad's headquarters. Illig Qaghan was taken prisoner and sent to Chang'an. The Eastern Turkic Khaganate collapsed and was incorporated into the Jimi system of Tang. Emperor Taizong said, 'It's enough for me to compensate my dishonor at Wei River.'
* Date : 630
|The Rashidun Caliphate (Arabic: اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ al-Khilāfah ar-Rāshidah) was the Islamic caliphate in the earliest period of Islam, comprising the first four caliphs—the 'Rightly Guided' or Rashidun caliphs (Arabic: اَلْخُلَفَاءُ ٱلرَّاشِدُونَ al-Khulafā’ ar-Rāshidūn). It was founded after Muhammad's death in 632 (year 11 AH in the Islamic calendar). At its height, the Caliphate controlled an empire from the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, to the Caucasus in the north, North Africa from Egypt to present-day Tunisia in the west, and the Iranian plateau to Central Asia in the east.
* Date : 632/06/08 ~ 661
|634||Muslim conquest of the Levant|
|The Muslim conquest of the Levant (Arabic: الفَتْحُ الإسْلَامِيُّ للشَّامِ) or Arab conquest of the Levant (Arabic: الفَتْحُ العَرَبِيُّ لِلشَّامِ) occurred in the first half of the 7th century, and refers to the conquest of the region known as the Levant, later to become the Islamic Province of Bilad al-Sham, as part of the Islamic conquests.
* Date : 634 ~ 638
|636/08/15||Battle of Yarmouk|
|The Battle of Yarmouk was a major battle between the army of the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim Arab forces of the Rashidun Caliphate.
* Date : 636/08/15
|The Taika Reforms (大化の改新 Taika no Kaishin?) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku (孝徳天皇 Kōtoku-tennō) in the year 645. They were written shortly after the death of Prince Shōtoku, and the defeat of the Soga clan (蘇我氏 Soga no uji), uniting Japan. The reforms also artistically marked the end of the Asuka period and the beginning of the Hakuhō period. Crown Prince Naka no Ōe (who would later reign as Emperor Tenji), Nakatomi no Kamatari, and Emperor Kōtoku jointly embarked on the details of the Reforms. Emperor Kōtoku then took the name 'Taika' (大化), or 'Great Reform'.
* Date : 646
|651||Fall of Sasanian Empire|
|Upon hearing of the defeat in Nihawānd, Yazdegerd along with Farrukhzad and with some of the Persian nobles fled further inland to the eastern province of Khorasan. Yazdegerd was assassinated by a miller in Merv in late 651, while some of the nobles settled in Central Asia, where they contributed greatly to spreading Persian culture and language in those regions and to the establishment of the first native Iranian Islamic dynasty, the Samanid dynasty, which sought to revive Sassanid traditions.
* Date : 651
|660||Fall of Baekje|
|In 660 it was defeated, by an alliance of Silla and the Chinese Tang Dynasty, and submitted to Unified Silla.
* Date : 660
|The Umayyad Caliphate, also spelled Omayyad, was the second of the four major Arab caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca.
* Date : 661 ~ 750
|663/08/27||Battle of Baekgang|
|The Battle of Baekgang, also known as Battle of Baekgang-gu or by the Japanese name Battle of Hakusukinoe (白村江の戦い Hakusuki-no-e no Tatakai or Hakusonkō no Tatakai), was a battle between Baekje restoration forces and their ally, Yamato Japan, against the allied forces of Silla and the Tang Dynasty of ancient China. The battle took place in the lower reaches of the Geum River in Jeollabuk-do province, Korea. The Silla-Tang forces won a decisive victory, compelling Yamato Japan to withdraw completely from Korean affairs and crushing the Baekje restoration movement.
* Date : 663/08/27
|668||Fall of Goguryeo|
|Goguryeo falls to the Silla-Tang forces.
* Date : 668
|670/07||Battle of Dafei River|
|The Battle of Dafei River was fought in mid-670 between the forces of the Chinese Tang dynasty and the Tibetan Empire, for control over the Tarim Basin (the 'Western Regions' in Chinese parlance).
* Date : 670/07
|The Jinshin War (壬申の乱 jinshin no ran?) was a succession dispute in Japan which broke out in 672 following the death of Emperor Tenji. The name refers to the jinshin (壬申) or ninth year of the sixty-year Jikkan Jūnishi calendrical cycle, corresponding to the Western year 673.
* Date : 672/07/23
|674||Siege of Constantinople (674–678)|
|The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674–678 was a major conflict of the Arab–Byzantine Wars, and the first culmination of the Umayyad Caliphate's expansionist strategy towards the Byzantine Empire, led by Caliph Mu'awiya I.
* Date : 674 ~ 678
|676/02/25||Silla unified Korean state|
|Silla repels Chinese alliance forces from Korean peninsula, completes unification of much of the Three Kingdoms.
* Date : 676/02/25
|682||Turks are independent from the Tang Dynasty|
|Despite all the setbacks, Ashina Kutluk (Ilterish Qaghan) and his brother Qapaghan Qaghan succeeded in reestablishing the Khanate. From 679 they revolted against the Tang Dynasty Chinese domination for several times and finally succeeded in 682 and, over the following decades, steadily gained control of the steppes beyond the Great Wall of China.
* Date : 682
|698||Founding of Balhae|
|Dae Jo-yeong (died 719), also known in Korea as King Go (Hangul: 고왕, Hanja: 高王), established the state of Balhae, reigning from 699 to 719.
* Date : 698
|Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the eighth century, southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control. The name more generally describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims (given the generic name of Moors) at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed.
* Date : 711
|717||Siege of Constantinople (717–718)|
|The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople.
* Date : 717 ~ 718
|732||Battle of Tours|
|The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) — also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء, translit. Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) — was fought between Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by 'Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus. It was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) northeast of Poitiers. The location of the battle was close to the border between the Frankish realm and then-independent Aquitaine.
* Date : 732
|740||Battle of Akroinon|
|The Battle of Akroinon was fought at Akroinon or Akroinos (near modern Afyon) in Phrygia, on the western edge of the Anatolian plateau, in 740 between an Umayyad Arab army and the Byzantine forces.
* Date : 740
|The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghurئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: traditional Chinese: 回鶻; simplified Chinese: 回鹘; pinyin: Huíhú or traditional Chinese: 回紇; simplified Chinese: 回纥; pinyin: Huíhé) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
* Date : 744
|The Abbasid Caliphate (/əˈbæsᵻd/ or /ˈæbəsᵻd/ Arabic: الخلافة العباسية al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs, for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH).
* Date : 750
|751||Battle of Talas|
|The Battle of Talas, Battle of Talas River, or Battle of Artlakh (Chinese: 怛羅斯會戰; Arabic: معركة نهر طلاس) was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong. In July 751 AD, Tang and Abbasid forces met in the valley of the Talas River to vie for control of the Syr Darya region of central Asia.
* Date : 751
|755||An Lushan Rebellion|
|The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China. The rebellion overtly began on 16 December 755, when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China, thus establishing a rival Yan Dynasty, and ended when Yan fell on 17 February 763 (although the effects lasted past this).
* Date : 755 ~ 763
|He became king in 768 following the death of his father, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom.
* Date : 771
|Vikings (Danish and Bokmål: vikinger; Swedish and Nynorsk: vikingar; Icelandic: víkingar), from Old Norse víkingr, were Nordic seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central and eastern Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
* Date : 793 ~ 1066/09/25
|828||Jang Bogo establishes Cheonghaejin|
|Cheonghaejin (literally 'Blue sea headquarters') was a major military headquarters and trading hub located on Wando island, South Jeolla province of South Korea, and established by Korean general Jang Bogo in 828 ACE during the Silla kingdom period. It traded mainly with Tang Dynasty China and Japan, and served as a military hub to combat various pirate factions.
* Date : 828
|840||Fall of Uyghur Khaganate|
|The following spring, in 840, one of nine Uyghur ministers, Kulug Bagha, rival of Kurebir, fled to the Yenisei Kirghiz and invited them to invade from the north. With a force of around 80,000 horsemen, they sacked the Uyghur capital at Ordu-Baliq, razing it to the ground. The Kyrgyz captured the Uyghur Khagan, Kürebir (Hesa), and promptly beheaded him.
* Date : 840
|843||Treaty of Verdun|
|The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, the son and successor of Charlemagne. The treaty signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War.
* Date : 843
|Huang Chao (Chinese: 黃巢; 835 - July 13, 884) was a Han Chinese salt trader, academic scholar, rebel and soldier who rose to become the first and only emperor of the Kingdom of Qi (齊國). He is also well known for being the leader of a major agrarian rebellion that severely weakened the rival Tang dynasty.
* Date : 875 ~ 884
|Kievan Rus' (Old East Slavic: Рѹ́сь (Rus'), Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ancient Greek: Ῥωσία, Latin: Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Old Norse: Garðaríki) was a loose federation of East Slavic tribes in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Rurik dynasty. The modern peoples of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestors.
* Date : 882
|892||Later Three Kingdoms|
|The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892–936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje ('Later Baekje') and Hugoguryeo ('Later Goguryeo', it was replaced by Goryeo). The later two claimed heirs to the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea, which had been united by Silla, even though Hugoguryeo has little to do with Goguryeo.
* Date : 892 ~ 936
|895||Hungarian invasions of Europe|
|The Hungarian invasions of Europe took place in the 9th and 10th centuries, the period of transition in the history of Europe between the early and high medieval period, when the territory of the former Carolingian Empire was threatened by invasion from multiple hostile forces, the Magyars (Hungarians) from the east, the Norsemen from the north and the Arabs from the south.
* Date : 895 ~ 955
|900||Classic Maya collapse|
|In archaeology, the classic Maya collapse refers to the decline of Maya civilization and abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries, at the end of the Classic Maya Period. Preclassic Maya experienced a similar collapse in the 2nd century.
* Date : 900
|907||Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period|
|The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, also called Five Dynasties, was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century imperial China. During this period, five states quickly succeeded one another in the Chinese Central Plain, while more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere, mainly in south China.
* Date : 907 ~ 960
|The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud; simplified Chinese: 辽朝; traditional Chinese: 遼朝; pinyin: Liáo cháo), officially the Great Liao (Chinese: 大遼; pinyin: Dà Liáo), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur; Chinese: 契丹国; pinyin: Qìdān guó) and the Liao Empire, was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern Korea, and northern China. The Liao dynasty was founded by Abaoji, Khagan of the Khitan people around the time of the collapse of Tang China. It was the first state to control all of Manchuria.
* Date : 907 ~ 1125
|The Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic: الفاطميون, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili Shia Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The dynasty ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz.
* Date : 909
|911||Duchy of Normandy|
|The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and Rollo, leader of the Vikings. From 1066 until 1204 it was held by the kings of England, except for the brief rule of Robert Curthose (1087–1106) and Geoffrey Plantagenet (1144–1150).
* Date : 911
|Goryeo, also spelled as Koryŏ (Hangul: 고려; Hanja: 高麗; 918–1392), was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by King Taejo. This kingdom later gave name to the modern exonym 'Korea'. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean Peninsula until it was removed by the founder of the Joseon in 1392. Goryeo expanded Korea's borders to present-day Wonsan in the northeast (936–943), the Yalu River (993) and finally almost the whole of the Korean Peninsula (1374).
* Date : 918
|926||Balhae falls to Khitan forces|
|A Khitan invasion took the capital of Balhae after a 25-day siege in 926. After destroying Balhae in 926, the Khitans established a puppet Dongdan Kingdom, which was soon annexed by Liao in 936.
* Date : 926
|929||Caliphate of Córdoba(~1031)|
|The Caliphate of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031.
* Date : 929
|935||Fall of Silla|
|In 935, King Gyeongsun of a very weakened Silla surrendered to Goryeo.
* Date : 935
|946||Eruption of Paektu Mountain ?|
|The 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain, on the boundaries of China/Korea, was one of the most powerful in recorded history and is classified as a VEI-7 event.
* Date : 946
|The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, coincided with the Liao and Western Xia dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty.
* Date : 960
|962||Holy Roman Empire(~1806)|
|The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.
* Date : 962
|993||First of three Goryeo-Khitan Wars|
|The First Goryeo-Khitan War was a 10th-century conflict between the kingdom of Goryeo and the Liao dynasty (the Khitan Empire) near what is now the border between China and North Korea. It occurred in 993 and was the first of the Goryeo-Khitan Wars, which were continued with the Second Goryeo-Khitan War (1010) and Third Goryeo-Khitan War (1018).
* Date : 993
|The Chanyuan Treaty (simplified Chinese: 澶渊之盟; traditional Chinese: 澶淵之盟; pinyin: Chányuān Zhī Méng) in 1004-1005 was the pivotal point in the relations between the Northern Song (960-1127) and the Liao Dynasties (916-1125). The ruling class of the Liao were a people of nomadic origin known as the Khitan (Qidan in Chinese) who rose in the northeast around present-day Heilongjiang Province. The Song dynasty, also referred to as the Northern Song, ruled virtually all of China from the late tenth century when it eliminated the last of the kingdoms in the north and the south that stood against Chinese unification.
* Date : 1004
|1018||Third Goryeo-Khitan War|
|The Third Goryeo–Khitan War was an 11th-century conflict between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. The Goryeo-Khitan Wars began in 993 with the first campaign and continued with the second campaign.
* Date : 1018
|The Seljuk Empire or Great Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (Persian: آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. From their homelands near the Aral sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia.
* Date : 1037 ~ 1194
|The Western Xia (Chinese: 西夏; pinyin: Xī Xià; Wade–Giles: Hsi1 Hsia4), also known as the Xi Xia Empire, the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people and the Tibetans as Minyak, was an empire which existed from 1038 to 1227 in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, and southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about 800,000 square kilometers.
* Date : 1038
|The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, which has lasted since the 11th century. It is not to be confused with the Western Schism (which is also sometimes called the 'Great' Schism).
* Date : 1054
|1066||Norman conquest of England|
|The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.
* Date : 1066
|1071/08/26||Battle of Manzikert|
|The Battle of Manzikert (Turkish: Malazgirt Meydan Muharebesi,Arabic: معركة ملاذكرد) was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuq Turks on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert (modern Malazgirt in Muş Province, Turkey). The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia.
* Date : 1071/08/26
|1077/01||Road to Canossa|
|The Road to Canossa (German: Gang nach Canossa), sometimes called the Walk to Canossa or Humiliation of Canossa (Italian: L'umiliazione di Canossa), refers to the trek by German king Henry IV from Speyer to Canossa Castle in Emilia-Romagna to obtain the revocation of the excommunication imposed on him by the Pope Gregory VII. He was forced to humiliate himself on his knees waiting for three days and three nights before the entrance gate of the castle, while a blizzard raged in January 1077.
* Date : 1077/01
|1085||conquest of Toledo by Castilian forces|
|Alfonso VI the Brave gave more power to the fueros and repopulated Segovia, Ávila and Salamanca. Once he had secured the Borders, King Alfonso conquered the powerful Taifa kingdom of Toledo in 1085. Toledo, which was the former capital of the Visigoths, was a very important landmark, and the conquest made Alfonso renowned throughout the Christian world. However, this 'conquest' was conducted rather gradually, and mostly peacefully, during the course of several decades. It was not until after sporadic and consistent population resettlements had taken place that Toledo was decisively conquered.
* Date : 1085
|The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period, especially the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of capturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Islamic rule, to recapture Christian territory and defend Christian pilgrims.
* Date : 1095 ~ 1291
|1100||Medieval Warm Period|
|The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that was likely related to other warming events in other regions during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from c. 950 to c. 1250. Other regions were colder, such as the tropical Pacific. Averaged global mean temperatures have been calculated to be similar to early-mid 20th century warming.
* Date : 1100
|1115||Jin dynasty (1115–1234)|
|The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China. Its name is sometimes written as Kin or Jinn in English to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identical when transcribed without tone marker diacritics in the Hanyu Pinyin system for Standard Chinese. It is also sometimes called the 'Jurchen dynasty' or the 'Jurchen Jin', because its founding Emperor Taizu of Jin (reign 1115–1123) was of Wanyan Jurchen descent.
* Date : 1115 ~ 1234
|1125||Fall of Liao dynasty|
|In 1125, the Jurchens captured Emperor Tianzuo and ended the Liao dynasty.
* Date : 1125
|The Jingkang Incident (靖康事变; 靖康事變; Jìngkāng shì biàn), also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang (靖康之耻; 靖康之恥; Jìngkāng zhī chǐ) and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period (靖康之乱; 靖康之亂; Jìngkāng zhī luàn) took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty. The Jin forces captured the Song ruler, Emperor Qinzong, along with his father, Emperor Huizong, and many members of the imperial family and officials of the Song imperial court.
* Date : 1127
|Although weakened and pushed south beyond the Huai River, the Southern Song found new ways to bolster its strong economy and defend itself against the Jin dynasty. It had able military officers such as Yue Fei and Han Shizhong.
* Date : 1127
|1170/08||Goryeo military regime|
|The term Goryeo military regime (Hangul: 무신정권; Hanja: 武臣政權; RR: Musin Jeonggwon; MR: Musin Jŏnggwŏn) describes the government of Goryeo from the time of the military coup d'état of 1170 to the Sambyeolcho Rebellion of 1270 and the definitive subordination of Korea to the Mongol Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire.
* Date : 1170/08 ~ 1270
|Zhu Xi or Chu Hsi (Chinese: 朱熹, October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200) was a Song dynasty Confucian scholar who was the leading figure of the School of Principle and the most influential rationalist Neo-Confucian in China. His contributions to Chinese philosophy including his assigning special significance to the Analects, the Mencius, the Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean (the Four Books), his emphasis on the investigation of things (gewu), and the synthesis of all fundamental Confucian concepts, formed the basis of Chinese bureaucracy and government for over 700 years. He has been called the second most influential thinker in Chinese history, after Confucius himself.
* Date : 1200
|1204||Sack of Constantinople (1204)|
|The Sack of Constantinople or Siege of Constantinople occurred in 1204 and marked the end of the Fourth Crusade. Mutinous Crusader armies captured, looted, and destroyed parts of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. After the capture, the Latin Empire was created and Baldwin of Flanders was crowned Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople in the Hagia Sophia.
* Date : 1204
|Genghis Khan (/ˈdʒɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/, often pronounced /ˈɡɛŋɡɪs ˈkɑːn/; Mongolian: Чингис хаан, Çingis hán; Mongolian pronunciation: [t͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋ] ( listen)) c. 1162 – August 18, 1227, born Temüjin, was the founder and Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
* Date : 1206 ~ 1227/08/18
|1218||House of Ögedei(~1310)|
|The House of Ögedei, sometimes called the Ögedeids, were an influential family of Mongol Borjigin (Imperial, or Golden Family) from the 12th to 14th centuries. They were descended from Ögedei Khan (1186-1241), a son of Genghis Khan who had become his father's successor, second Khagan of the Mongol Empire.
* Date : 1218
|1221/05||Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia|
|The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states. The Mongol expansion would ultimately culminate in the conquest of virtually all of Eurasia, save for Western Europe, Fennoscandia, the Byzantine Empire, Arabia, most of the Indian subcontinent, Japan, and parts of Southeast Asia.
* Date : 1221/05
|The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259.
* Date : 1225
|1227||Mongol conquest of Western Xia|
|Genghis intended to annihilate the entire Western Xia culture, and his campaign systematically destroyed Western Xia cities and the countryside, culminating in the siege of the capital in 1227 along with forays into Jin territory. Near the end of the siege, in August 1227, Genghis Khan died from an uncertain cause, though some accounts say he was killed in action against Western Xia. After his death, Yinchuan fell to the Mongols and most of its population was massacred.
* Date : 1227
|1231/08/28||Mongol invasions of Korea|
|The Mongol invasions of Korea (1231–1259) comprised a series of campaigns between 1231 and 1270 by the Mongol Empire against the Kingdom of Goryeo (the proto-state of modern-day Korea). There were seven major campaigns at tremendous cost to civilian lives throughout the Korean peninsula, ultimately resulting in Korea becoming a vassal state of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty for approximately 80 years.
* Date : 1231/08/28 ~ 1259/03
|1234||Fall of Jin dynasty|
|Wanyan Chenglin, historically known as Emperor Mo, ruled for less than a day before he was finally killed in battle. Thus the Jin dynasty came to an end in the year 1234.
* Date : 1234
|1241/04/19||Battle of Legnica|
|The Battle of Legnica (Polish: bitwa pod Legnicą), also known as the Battle of Liegnitz (German: Schlacht von Liegnitz) or Battle of Wahlstatt (German: Schlacht bei Wahlstatt), was a battle between the Mongol Empire and the combined defending forces of European fighters that took place at Legnickie Pole (Wahlstatt) near the city of Legnica in the Silesia province of the Kingdom of Poland on 9 April 1241.
* Date : 1241/04/19
|The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Алтан Ордын улс Altan Ordīn uls; Russian: Золотая Орда, tr. Zolotaja Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
* Date : 1243
|1250||Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)(~1517)|
|The Mamluk Sultanate (Arabic: سلطنة المماليك Sulṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid Dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamlūk rule into two periods—one covering 1250–1382, the other, 1382–1517.
* Date : 1250
|The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (Persian: ایلخانان, Ilkhānān; Mongolian: Хүлэгийн улс, Hulagu-yn Ulus), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey.
* Date : 1256
|1257||1257 Samalas eruption|
|The 1257 Samalas eruption was a major volcanic eruption of the Samalas volcano, next to Mount Rinjani on the island of Lombok, Indonesia. It left a large caldera next to Rinjani volcano, the lake Segara Anak. This volcanic eruption reached a volcanic explosivity index of 7, making it one of the largest eruptions of the Holocene.
* Date : 1257
|1258||Siege of Baghdad (1258)|
|The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops. The Mongols were under the command of Hulagu Khan (or Hulegu Khan), brother of the khagan Möngke Khan, who had intended to further extend his rule into Mesopotamia but not to directly overthrow the Caliphate. Möngke, however, had instructed Hulagu to attack Baghdad if the Caliph Al-Musta'sim refused Mongol demands for his continued submission to the khagan and the payment of tribute in the form of military support for Mongol forces in Iran.
* Date : 1258
|1260/09/03||Battle of Ain Jalut|
|The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the 'Spring of Goliath', or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place on 3 September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, not far from the site of Zir'in. The battle marked the south-westernmost extent of Mongol conquests, and was the first time a Mongol advance had been permanently halted. This was blamed on the sudden death of the then-Khagan Möngke Khan; an event that forced the Mongol Ilkhanate Hulagu Khan to take a large part of his army back with him on the way to Mongolia. This left Hulagu's lieutenant, Kitbuga, with only a small detachment of soldiers.
* Date : 1260/09/03
|1260||Toluid Civil War|
|The Toluid Civil War was fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264. Möngke Khan died in 1259 with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to a civil war. The Toluid Civil War, and the wars that followed it (such as the Berke–Hulagu war and the Kaidu–Kublai war), weakened the authority of the Great Khan over the Mongol Empire and split the empire into autonomous khanates.
* Date : 1260 ~ 1264/07
|The Yuan dynasty (Chinese: 元朝; pinyin: Yuán Cháo), officially the Great Yuan (Chinese: 大元; pinyin: Dà Yuán; Mongolian: Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. Although the Mongols had ruled territories including today's North China for decades, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially proclaimed the dynasty in the traditional Chinese style, and the conquest was not complete until 1279.
* Date : 1271 ~ 1368
|1274||Mongol invasions of Japan(1)|
|In 1274, the Yuan fleet set out with an estimated 15,000 Mongol and Chinese soldiers and 8000 Korean soldiers in 300 large vessels and 400-500 smaller craft, although figures vary considerably depending on the source.
* Date : 1274
|1279||Fall of Song dynasty|
|The Mongols defeated the loyalists at the battle of Yamen in 1279. The last Song emperor drowned, bringing an end to the Song dynasty. The conquest of the Song reunited northern and southern China for the first time in three hundred years.
* Date : 1279
|1281||Mongol invasions of Japan(2)|
|In the spring of 1281, the Mongols sent two separate forces. An impressive force of 900 ships containing 40,000 Yuan troops set out from Masan, Korea, while an even larger force of 100,000 sailed from southern China in 3,500 ships.
* Date : 1281
|1283||Grand Duchy of Moscow(~1547)|
|The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Russian: Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), or Grand Principality of Moscow (also known in English simply as Muscovy), was a late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
* Date : 1283
|Nayan conspired with two other descendants of brothers of Genghis Khan, Shiktur and Qada'an, who also held appanages in Eastern Mongolia and Manchuria. He was also in contact with Kublai Khan's nephew and inveterate enemy Kaidu, who ruled much of Central Asia. Nayan broke into open rebellion between 14 May and 12 June, 1287, and the main battle against Kublai took place around 16 July.
* Date : 1287
|The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانیه, Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
* Date : 1299
|The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in today's France) rather than in Rome. The situation arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown.
* Date : 1309
|1315||Crisis of the Late Middle Ages|
|The crisis of the Late Middle Ages refers to a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt. Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society: demographic collapse, political instabilities and religious upheavals. A series of famines and plagues, beginning with the Great Famine of 1315–17 and especially the Black Death of 1348, reduced the population perhaps by half or more as the Medieval Warm Period came to a close and the first century of the Little Ice Age began.
* Date : 1315 ~ 1351
|1315||Great Famine of 1315–17|
|The Great Famine of 1315–1317 (occasionally dated 1315–1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the fourteenth century. Most of Europe (extending east to Russia and south to Italy) was affected. The famine caused millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marked a clear end to the period of growth and prosperity from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries.
* Date : 1315 ~ 1317
|1334||Black Death, Asian outbreak|
|The scenario that would place the first outbreak in central Asia agrees with the first reports of outbreaks in China in the early 1330s. The plague struck the Chinese province of Hubei in 1334.
* Date : 1334
|The Muromachi period (室町時代 Muromachi jidai?, also known as the Muromachi era, the Ashikaga era, or the Ashikaga period) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. The period marks the governance of the Muromachi or Ashikaga shogunate (Muromachi bakufu or Ashikaga bakufu), which was officially established in 1338 by the first Muromachi shogun, Ashikaga Takauji, two years after the brief Kenmu Restoration (1333–36) of imperial rule was brought to a close. The period ended in 1573 when the 15th and last shogun of this line, Ashikaga Yoshiaki, was driven out of the capital in Kyoto by Oda Nobunaga.
* Date : 1336
|1337||Hundred Years' War|
|The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, rulers of the Kingdom of France, over the succession of the French throne. Each side drew many allies into the war. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of strong national identities in both countries.
* Date : 1337 ~ 1453
|The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–1353.
* Date : 1346 ~ 1353
|According to Korean records, wako pirates were particularly rampant roughly from 1350. After almost annual invasions of the southern provinces of Jeolla and Gyeongsang, they migrated northwards to the Chungcheong and Gyeonggi areas.
* Date : 1350
|1351||Red Turban Rebellion|
|The Red Turban Rebellion (Chinese: 紅巾起義; pinyin: Hóngjīn Qǐyì) was an uprising influenced by the White Lotus Society members that, between 1351 and 1368, targeted the ruling Yuan dynasty of China, eventually leading to its overthrow.
* Date : 1351 ~ 1368
|1360/10||Red Turban invasions of Goryeo(2)|
|In November 1360, the Red Turban troops invaded again Goryeo's northwest border with 200,000 troops and they occupied Gaegyeong, the capital of Goryeo, for a short period, King Gongmin escaped to Andong.
* Date : 1360/10
|1368||Northern Yuan dynasty|
|The Northern Yuan dynasty, or simply the Northern Yuan, was the Mongol regime based in Mongolia homeland after the fall of the Yuan dynasty in China in 1368, until the emergence of the Qing dynasty founded by the Manchus in the 17th century.
* Date : 1368
|The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China—then known as the Empire of the Great Ming—for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by some as 'one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history,' was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese.
* Date : 1368
|The Timurid Empire (Persian: تیموریان), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was a Persianate Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary Pakistan, Syria, and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405.
* Date : 1370
|Timur (Persian: تیمور Timūr, Chagatai: Temür, Uzbek: Temur; 9 April 1336— 18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (Persian: تيمور لنگ Timūr(-e) Lang, 'Timur the Lame'), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror and the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia. He was also the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty.
* Date : 1370 ~ 1405
|1388/05/18||Battle of Buir Lake|
|The Battle of Buir Lake (traditionally Chinese: 捕鱼儿海之战) was a battle between Ming and Northern Yuan forces at Buir Lake in 1388, on the modern China–Mongolia border. In that year a Ming army led by General Lan Yu undertook a military campaign against Toghus Temur (Yizong), the Mongol dynast of the Northern Yuan. Later that year, the Ming army found and defeated the Mongol horde at Buir Lake, capturing many of their people.
* Date : 1388/05/18
|1392/08/05||Beginning the Joseon Dynasty|
|The Kingdom of Joseon (Hangul: 대조선국; Hanja: 大朝鮮國, literally 'Great Joseon State'; also Chosŏn, Choson, Chosun) was a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for approximately five centuries, from July 1392 to October 1897.
* Date : 1392/08/05
|1396/09/25||Battle of Nicopolis|
|The Battle of Nicopolis (Bulgarian: Битка при Никопол, Bitka pri Nikopol; Turkish: Niğbolu Savaşı, Hungarian: Nikápolyi csata, Romanian: Bătălia de la Nicopole) took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of Hungarian, Croatian, Bulgarian, Wallachian, French, English, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy) at the hands of an Ottoman force, raising of the siege of the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis and leading to the end of the Second Bulgarian Empire. It is often referred to as the Crusade of Nicopolis as it was one of the last large-scale Crusades of the Middle Ages, together with the Crusade of Varna in 1443–1444.
* Date : 1396/09/25
|1398||Timur, Capture of Delhi (1398)|
|The capture of the Delhi Sultanate was one of Timur's greatest victories, arguably surpassing the likes of Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan because of the harsh conditions of the journey and the achievement of taking down one of the richest cities at the time. After Delhi fell to Timur's army, uprisings by its citizens against the Turkic-Mongols began to occur, causing a bloody massacre within the city walls.
* Date : 1398
|Jingnan Campaign, or Jingnan Rebellion, was a civil war in the early years of the Ming Dynasty of China between the Jianwen Emperor and his uncle Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan. It started in 1399 and lasted for 3 years. The campaign ended after the forces of Prince of Yan captured the imperial capital Nanjing. The fall of Nanjing was followed by the demise of Jianwen Emperor, and Zhu Di was crowned the Yongle Emperor.
* Date : 1399/08/08 ~ 1402/07/13
|1402/07/20||Battle of Ankara|
|The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on 20 July 1402, took place at the field of Çubuk (near Ankara) between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Timur, ruler of the Timurid Empire. The battle was a major victory for Timur, and it led to a period of crisis for the Ottoman Empire (the Ottoman Interregnum). However, the Timurid Empire went into terminal decline following Timur's death just three years after the battle, while the Ottoman Empire made a full recovery, and continued to increase in power for another two to three centuries.
* Date : 1402/07/20
|In Chinese history, the treasure voyages were the seven Ming-era maritime voyages of the treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433. The Yongle Emperor initiated the construction of the treasure fleet in 1403. The grand project resulted in seven far-reaching ocean voyages to the coastal territories and islands in and around the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and beyond. Admiral Zheng He was commissioned to command the treasure fleet for the expeditions.
* Date : 1405/07/11 ~ 1433
|The Ōei Invasion (応永の外寇 Ōei no gaikō?), known as the Gihae Eastern Expedition (기해 동정) in Korea, was a 1419 invasion from Joseon against pirate bases on Tsushima Island, which is located in the middle of the Tsushima Strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu.
* Date : 1419/06/19
|Esen Taishi (Mongolian: Эсэн тайш; d. 1455) was a powerful Oirat Taishi, de facto ruler of the Northern Yuan in 15th century Mongolia . He is best known for capturing the Zhengtong Emperor of the Ming dynasty in 1450 after the Battle of Tumu Fortress and briefly reuniting the Mongols. The Four Oirat reached the peak of their power under his rule.
* Date : 1438
|Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (/joʊˌhɑːnᵻs ˈɡuːtənbɛrɡ/ yoh-HAH-nəs GOO-tən-behrɡ; c. 1398 – February 3, 1468) was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. His introduction of mechanical movable type printing to Europe started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important invention of the second millennium, the seminal event which ushered in the modern period of human history. It played a key role in the development of the Renaissance, Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.
* Date : 1439
|1446/10/09||The Hangul alphabet|
|The Hangul alphabet, created 3 years earlier, is promulgated by King Sejong the Great.
* Date : 1446/10/09
|The Tumu Crisis (simplified Chinese: 土木之变; traditional Chinese: 土木之變; Mongolian: Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress (simplified Chinese: 土木堡之变; traditional Chinese: 土木堡之變) or Battle of Tumu (Chinese: 土木之役), was a frontier conflict between the Oirats and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.
* Date : 1449/09/01
|1453/05/29||Fall of Constantinople|
|The Fall of Constantinople (Greek: Ἃλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; Turkish: İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on 29 May 1453. The Ottomans were commanded by the then 21-year-old Mehmed the Conqueror, the seventh sultan of the Ottoman Empire, who defeated an army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos. The conquest of Constantinople followed a 53-day siege that had begun on 6 April 1453.
* Date : 1453/05/29
|1455||Wars of the Roses|
|The Wars of the Roses were a series of wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster (associated with a red rose), and the House of York (whose symbol was a white rose). The conflict lasted through many sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487; however, there was fighting before and after this period between the houses. The power struggle ignited around social and financial troubles following the Hundred Years' War, combined with the mental infirmity and weak rule of Henry VI which revived interest in Richard, Duke of York's claim to the throne.
* Date : 1455 ~ 1485
|The Sengoku period (戦国時代 Sengoku jidai?, lit. Age of Civil War; c. 1467 – c. 1603) is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict. Japanese historians named it after the otherwise unrelated Warring States period in China. It came to an end when all political power was unified under the Tokugawa shogunate.
* Date : 1467
|1469||House of Medici's golden age|
|The House of Medici (/ˈmɛdᵻtʃi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [ˈmɛːditʃi]) was an Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs.
* Date : 1469 ~ 1492
|The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies. Open war broke out in 1474, and in the following years the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was defeated three times on the battlefield and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. The Duchy of Burgundy and several other Burgundian lands then became part of France, while the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté were inherited by Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy, and eventually passed to the House of Habsburg upon her death because of her marriage to Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
* Date : 1474 ~ 1477
|1492/01/02||Fall of Granada|
|An eight-month siege of Granada began in April 1491. The situation for the defenders grew progressively dire, as their forces for interfering with the siege dwindled and advisers schemed against each other. Bribery of important officials was rampant, and at least one of the chief advisers to Boabdil seems to have been working for Castile the entire time. After the Battle of Granada a provisional surrender, the Treaty of Granada, was signed on November 25, 1491, which granted two months to the city. The reason for the long delay was not so much intransigence on either side, but rather the inability of the Granadan government to coordinate amongst itself in the midst of the disorder and tumult that gripped the city. After the terms, which proved rather generous to the Muslims, were negotiated, the city capitulated on January 2, 1492. The besieging Christians sneaked troops into the Alhambra that day in case resistance materialized, which it did not. Granada's resistance had come to its end.
* Date : 1492/01/02
|The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year. The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391, and as such were not subject to the Decree or to expulsion. A further number of those remaining chose to avoid expulsion as a result of the edict. As a result of the Alhambra decree and persecution in prior years, over 200,000 Jews converted to Catholicism and between 40,000 and 100,000 were expelled, an indeterminate number returning to Spain in the years following the expulsion.
* Date : 1492/03/31
|1492/08/03||Voyages of Christopher Columbus|
|In 1492 a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus resulted in the discovery of the Americas, a continent which was previously unknown in Europe, as well as the colonization of the Americas.
* Date : 1492/08/03
|The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
* Date : 1494 ~ 1559
|1498/05/20||Vasco da Gama, India|
|On 8 July 1497 Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of 170 men from Lisbon. The fleet arrived in Kappadu near Kozhikode (Calicut), in Malabar Coast (present day Kerala state of India), on 20 May 1498.
* Date : 1498/05/20